Forest Genetics and Forest Tree Breeding

Digital Library

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Books and papers

Population genetic keys to speciation - Hans-Rolf Gregorius. Göttingen Research Notes in Forest Genetics 13, 1-19, 1992. Reproduced 2002 for internet distribution.

Characterization and Analysis of Mating Systems- Hans-Rolf Gregorius. Ekopan Verlag, Witzenhausen, 1998. Reproduced 2001 for internet distribution. 163+iv pages.

The system analytical approach to the study of hypotheses - Hans-Rolf Gregorius, 1998.

Confidence regions for hypotheses on system characteristics - Hans-Rolf Gregorius. Göttingen Research Notes in Forest Genetics 21: 1-14, 1996. Reproduced 2003 for internet distribution.

Reports

Which DNA Marker for Which Purpose?Final Compendium of the Research Project Development, optimisation and validation of molecular tools for assessment of biodiversity in forest trees. European Union DGXII Biotechnology FW IV Research Programme Molecular Tools for Diversity - Elizabeth M. Gillet (ed.), 1999.


Dissertations

Genetische Untersuchungen zu den Voraussetzungen und Konsequenzen einer rezedenten Lebensweise am Beispiel der Vogelkirsche (Prunus avium L.) [Genetic analysis of the prerequisites and consequences of a recedent life form. A case study on wild cherry (Prunus avium L.)] - A.M. Höltken, Dissertation, 2005.

Development of microsatellites in sycamore maple (Acer pseudoplatanus L.) and their application in population genetics [Die Entwicklung von Mikrosatelliten bei Bergahorn (Acer pseudoplatanus L.) und deren Anwendung in der Populationsgenetik] - M. Pandey, Dissertation, 2005.

Aspekte nachhaltiger Züchtung: Methodenkritik, -entwicklung und -anwendung [Aspects of sustainable breeding: review, development and application of methods] - J.R.G. Kleinschmit, Dissertation, 2004.

Asexuelle und sexuelle Reproduktion bei der Vogelkirsche (Prunus avium L.) [Asexual and sexual reproduction in populations of wild cherry (Prunus aviumL.)] - Dierk Kownatzki, Dissertation, 2002.

Reproduktion einer entomophilen Baumart in geringer Populationsdichte - Das Beispiel der Winterlinde (Tilia cordata Mill.) [Reproduction of an entomophilous tree species in low density - Small-leaved linden (Tilia cordata Mill.) as an example -] - Martin Fromm. Dissertation, 2001.

Reproduktionssystem des Feldahorns (Acer campestre L.): Blühphänologie und genetische Untersuchungen [Reproductive system of field maple (Acer campestre L.)] - Kathrin Bendixen. Dissertation, 2001.

Familienstrukturen in Buchenbeständen (Fagus sylvatica) [Family structures in beech stands (Fagus sylvatica)] - Aikaterini Doúnavi. Dissertation, 2000.

Konsequenzen wald- und forstgeschichtlicher Entwicklungen für die aktuelle genetische Zusammensetzung von Waldbaumpopulationen in Mitteleuropa [Consequences of quaternary and forest historical developments on the current genetic composition of forest tree populations in Central Europe] - Frank Norman Schoppa. Dissertation, 2000.

Zertifizierung genetischer Eigenschaften forstlichen Saat- und Pflanzengutes auf der Basis etablierter Methoden der Populationsgenetik [Certification of genetic properties of forest reproductive material based on established methods of population genetics] - Henning von Werder. Dissertation, 2000.



Population genetic keys to speciation

Hans-Rolf Gregorius

Göttingen Research Notes in Forest Genetics 13, 1-19, 1992.
Reproduced 2002 for internet distribution.

PDF File (161 KB): http://webdoc.sub.gwdg.de/ebook/y/2002/gregorius/speziat.pdf

Abstract

Based on the notions of Mendelian population and biological species, the commonly proposed pathways of speciation are discussed with respect to the roles played by reproductive isolation as well as pre- and postzygotic incompatibility. It is emphasized that evolutionarily meaningful analyses of speciation processes require consideration of the conditions for establishment of the various mechanisms of isolation and incompatibility, which, in turn, necessitates specification of appropriate modes of inheritance of these mechanisms. Properties desirable for genetic models of speciation are derived and compared with existing models. A general result on the joint evolution of underdominance in fitness and positive assortative mating is used to evaluate the significance of hybrid disadvantage and prezygotic incompatibility on speciation. The conclusions from this evaluation are compared with observations published in an analytical review of studies on incompatibilities among Drosophila species and with the results of a genetic analysis in two lacewing species presented as evidence for sympatric speciation.




Characterization and Analysis of Mating Systems

Hans-Rolf Gregorius

First printing 1989, Ekopan Verlag, Witzenhausen.
Reproduced 2001 for internet distribution. 163+iv pages.

PDF File (1,162,858 bytes): http://webdoc.sub.gwdg.de/ebook/y/2001/gregorius/matesys.pdf

Zipped Postscript file (379,364 bytes): http://webdoc.sub.gwdg.de/ebook/y/2001/gregorius/matesys-ps.zip

Table of Contents

  • Preliminary remarks
  • 1. Formal description of mating systems
    • 1.1 Mating references (potential mating partners)
    • 1.2 Mating preferences
    • 1.3 Mating success
    • 1.4 Conditional random mating
    • 1.5 Mating equivalence
    • 1.6 Application to an experimental data set

  • 2. Classification of mating systems
    • 2.1 Random mating in cosexual populations
    • 2.2 Random mating in dioecious populations
    • 2.3 Sexual selection
    • 2.4 Classification of mating systems by product structures
    • 2.5 Assortative mating
    • 2.6 Random preferential mating

  • 3. Models of random mating
    • 3.1 Cosexuality: Effects of random mating in the haplophase on the mating frequencies in the diplophase
    • 3.2 Dioecy: The effect of random mating in the diplophase on the mating frequencies in the haplophase
    • 3.3 Gynodioecy and androdioecy
    • 3.4 Trioecy

  • 4. Evolution of systems of sexuality
    • 4.1 Gynodioecy
    • 4.2 Trioecy

  • 5. Self-mating or self-fertilization
    • 5.1 Functional sex and self-mating proportions
    • 5.2 Self-mating and random cross-mating
    • 5.3 A model based on female self-mating proportions

  • 6. Genetic aspects of self-mating
    • 6.1 Dynamics of genotypic frequencies
    • 6.2 Complete self-mating
    • 6.3 Absence of differential proportions of self-mating

  • 7. Models of assortative mating
    • 7.1 Asynchrony of sexual maturity; Positive and negative assortative mating
    • 7.2 Synchrony of sexual maturity; Positive assortative mating (homotypic predisposition); Negative assortative mating (heterotypic predisposition)

  • 8. Selection with two alleles and two types
    • 8.1 Complete dominance of an allele
    • 8.2 Mating equivalence of the homozygotes

  • 9. Heterophasic mating (gametophytic incompatibility); General representation
    • 9.1 Differential pollen tube growth; A model
    • 9.2 Evolution of differential pollen tube growth; Negative assortative mating; Two alleles

  • References
  • Subject index




The system analytical approach to the study of hypotheses

Hans-Rolf Gregorius

Institut für Forstgenetik und Forstpflanzenzüchtung, Universität Göttingen, 1998

PDF file (708 KB): http://webdoc.sub.gwdg.de/ebook/y/1998/gregorius/sysana.pdf
Postscript file (472 KB): http://webdoc.sub.gwdg.de/ebook/y/1998/gregorius/sysana.ps

Contents

  1. Introduction
  2. General procedure for an analysis of causal mechanisms: Testing models; Critical regions of observations
  3. Estimation of target characteristics and determination of confidence regions
  4. Statistical aspects of system analysis - incomplete observations: Testing models without free parameter values; Testing models with free parameter values; Confidence regions and estimation; Measures of discrepancy
  5. Model dependence of analysis: Design of model




Confidence regions for hypotheses on system characteristics

Hans-Rolf Gregorius

Göttingen Research Notes in Forest Genetics 21: 1-14, 1996.
Reproduced 2003 for internet distribution.

PDF File (205 KB): http://webdoc.sub.gwdg.de/ebook/y/2003/gregorius/confreg.pdf

Abstract

The principle of hypothesis falsification forms the epistemological basis of systems analysis. It is realized by specification of a method of investigation suitable for testing a set of hypotheses on system characteristics. From this perspective, the principle has a special position in statistics, in that its observance calls for controlling the chances of erroneous falsification for each of the considered hypotheses. Falsification by improbability thus replaces strict falsification. Regions of rejection of hypotheses are then solely determined by the levels of significance set to the probability of not obtaining a result more probable than the observed under the respective hypothesis. Being a function of hypothesis and observation, this probability is termed the confidence zeta in a hypothesis supported by an observation, and it establishes the relation to the theory of exact testing. Taking advantage of the analogy to hypothesis testing, "exact" confidence regions can then be determined as the set of hypotheses that is supported by the observation with confidence zeta above a given level alpha of significance. The problem of hypothesis (including parameter) estimation is introduced as a problem of selecting hypotheses from confidence regions, and the roles of maximizing likelihood and confidence for obtaining and testing estimates is discussed. Maximization of confidence over subsets of hypotheses is also shown to yield unconditional tests of composite hypotheses. Application to the determination of "exact" confidence regions for the frequency parameter of the binomial distribution yielded results that are in many cases closely approximated by the direct method of Clopper and Pearson but also show distinct and unfamiliar features.




Which DNA Marker for Which Purpose?

Edited by Elizabeth M. Gillet

Final Compendium of the Research Project Development, optimisation and validation of molecular tools for assessment of biodiversity in forest trees. European Union DGXII Biotechnology FW IV Research Programme Molecular Tools for Diversity, 1999.

Online book: http://webdoc.sub.gwdg.de/ebook/y/1999/whichmarker

Zipped PDF files (1.4 MB): http://webdoc.sub.gwdg.de/ebook/y/1999/whichmarker

Table of Contents

Which DNA Marker for Which Purpose?



Objectives and concepts
1.
The objectives of "Which DNA Marker for Which Purpose?" - E.M. Gillet, F. Scholz
2.
DNA markers - Concepts and characteristics - E.M. Gillet
3.
Purposes - Classification and desired marker characteristics - E.M. Gillet

Inference of family relationships and mating system
4.
Comparison of microsatellites and AFLP markers for parentage analysis - S. Gerber, S. Mariette, R. Streiff, C. Bodénès, A. Kremer
5.
DIG-labelled AFLPs in oaks - A DNA marker for reconstruction of full- or half-sib family relationships? - B. Ziegenhagen, V. Kuhlenkamp, R. Brettschneider, F. Scholz, B.R. Stephan, B. Degen
6.
Microsatellite analysis of anonymous seedlot samples from oak: a promising approach to monitor the number of different seed parents and pollen donors - C. Lexer, B. Heinze, S. Gerber, H. Steinkellner, B. Ziegenhagen, A. Kremer, J. Glössl
7.
Nuclear microsatellites as a tool in the genetic characterization of forest reproductive material. A case study in sessile oak (Quercus petraea Matt., Liebl.) - S. La Scala, R. Schubert, G. Müller-Starck, K. Liepe

Distribution of within-species genetic variation over space and time
8.
Microsatellite markers as a tool for the detection of intra- and interpopulation genetic structure - I. Scotti, G. Paglia, F. Magni, M. Morgante
9.
Chloroplast microsatellites for analysis of the geographic distribution of diversity in conifer species - M. Anzidei, A. Madaghiele, C. Sperisen, B. Ziegenhagen, G.G. Vendramin
10. Mitochondrial DNA variation provides a tool for identifying introduced provenances: A case study in Norway spruce - C. Sperisen, U. Büchler, G. Mátyás, L. Ackzell

Phylogeny reconstruction
11.
Limitations to the phylogenetic use of ITS sequences in closely related species and populations - a case study in Quercus petraea (Matt.) Liebl. - G. Muir, C. Schlötterer
12.
Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphisms and Microsatellites: A phylogenetic perspective - J.P. Robinson, S.A. Harris

Identification of expressed genes
13.
Isolation and sequence analysis of oak and spruce cDNA clones - M. Berenyi, S. Fluch, K. Hohl, K. Burg, R. Schubert, R. Riegel, G. Müller-Starck
14.
Application of the AFLP® technique in marker assisted breeding - J. Peleman

Sampling Strategies for Marker Analysis



1.
Minimum sample sizes for sampling genetic marker distributions - E.M. Gillet
2.
Sampling within the genome for measuring within-population diversity - S. Mariette, V. Lecorre, A. Kremer

Software for Marker Analysis

  • Software for inheritance analysis:CoTrix, HAPLOGEN, DIPLOGEN, AFLP® Image Analysis Software
  • Software for modelling of genetic processes: Eco-Gene, METAPOP
  • Software for assessing genetic variation:GSED
  • Software tools: GeneKonv



Genetische Untersuchungen zu den Voraussetzungen und Konsequenzen einer rezedenten Lebensweise am Beispiel der Vogelkirsche (Prunus avium L.)

[Genetic analysis of the prerequisites and consequences of a recedent life form. A case study on wild cherry (Prunus avium L.)]

Aki M. Höltken

Dissertation, Institut für Forstgenetik und Forstpflanzenzüchtung, Universität Göttingen, 2005
[German with English summary]

Abstract (English and German)

Published at http://webdoc.sub.gwdg.de/diss/2005/hoeltken

PDF file (1,965,948 bytes): http://webdoc.sub.gwdg.de/diss/2005/hoeltken/hoeltken.pdf



Development of microsatellites in sycamore maple (Acer pseudoplatanus L.) and their application in population genetics

[Die Entwicklung von Mikrosatelliten bei Bergahorn (Acer pseudoplatanus L.) und deren Anwendung in der Populationsgenetik]

Madhav Pandey

Dissertation, Institut für Forstgenetik und Forstpflanzenzüchtung, Universität Göttingen, 2005
[English with German summary]

Abstract (English and German)

Published at http://resolver.sub.uni-goettingen.de/purl/?webdoc-9

PDF file (4,833,020 bytes): http://webdoc.sub.gwdg.de/diss/2005/pandey/pandey.pdf



Aspekte nachhaltiger Züchtung: Methodenkritik, -entwicklung und -anwendung

[Aspects of sustainable breeding: review, development and application of methods]

Jörg R.G. Kleinschmit

Dissertation, Institut für Forstgenetik und Forstpflanzenzüchtung, Universität Göttingen, 2004
[German with English summary]

Abstract (English and German)

Published at http://webdoc.sub.gwdg.de/diss/2005/kleinschmit

PDF file (3,449,113 bytes): http://webdoc.sub.gwdg.de/diss/2005/kleinschmit/kleinschmit.pdf



Asexuelle und sexuelle Reproduktion bei der Vogelkirsche (Prunus avium L.)

[Asexual and sexual reproduction in populations of wild cherry (Prunus avium L.)]

Dierk Kownatzki

Dissertation, Institut für Forstgenetik und Forstpflanzenzüchtung, Universität Göttingen, 2001
[German with English summary]

Abstract (englisch und deutsch)

Published at http://webdoc.sub.gwdg.de/diss/2002/kownatzki

PDF file (9,513,519 bytes): http://webdoc.sub.gwdg.de/diss/2002/kownatzki/vokirdis.pdf




Reproduktion einer entomophilen Baumart in geringer Populationsdichte - Das Beispiel der Winterlinde (Tilia cordata Mill.)

[Reproduction of an entomophilous tree species in low density - Small-leaved linden (Tilia cordata Mill.) as an example -]

Martin Fromm

Dissertation, Institut für Forstgenetik und Forstpflanzenzüchtung, Universität Göttingen, 2001
[German with English summary]

Abstract (englisch und deutsch)

Published at http://webdoc.sub.gwdg.de/diss/2001/fromm

PDF file (6,886,304 bytes): http://webdoc.sub.gwdg.de/diss/2001/fromm.pdf




Reproduktionssystem des Feldahorns (Acer campestre L.): Blühphänologie und genetische Untersuchungen

[Reproductive system of field maple (Acer campestre L.): Flowering phenology and genetic investigations]

Kathrin Bendixen

Dissertation, Institut für Forstgenetik und Forstpflanzenzüchtung, Universität Göttingen, 2001
[German with English summary]

Abstract (englisch und deutsch)

Published at http://webdoc.sub.gwdg.de/diss/2001/bendixen

PDF file (3,159,190 bytes): http://webdoc.sub.gwdg.de/diss/2001/bendixen/bendixen.pdf




Familienstrukturen in Buchenbeständen (Fagus sylvatica)

[Family structures in beech stands (Fagus sylvatica)]

Aikaterini Doúnavi

Dissertation, Institut für Forstgenetik und Forstpflanzenzüchtung, Universität Göttingen, 2000
[German with English summary]

Abstract (englisch)

Published at http://webdoc.sub.gwdg.de/diss/2000/dounavi

PDF file (2.72 MB): http://webdoc.sub.gwdg.de/diss/2000/dounavi/dissdounavi.pdf




Konsequenzen wald- und forstgeschichtlicher Entwicklungen für die aktuelle genetische Zusammensetzung von Waldbaumpopulationen in Mitteleuropa

[Consequences of quaternary and forest historical developments on the current genetic composition of forest tree populations in Central Europe]

Frank Norman Schoppa

Dissertation, Institut für Forstgenetik und Forstpflanzenzüchtung, Universität Göttingen, 2000
[German with English summary]

Published at http://webdoc.sub.gwdg.de/diss/2000/schoppa

Zipped PDF files (1.66 MB): http://webdoc.sub.gwdg.de/diss/2000/schoppa/schoppa.zip

Abstract

In view of the preservation and the sustainable use of the biological multiplicity of forests as well as the assessment of the current adaptedness and adaptability of forest tree populations, a new interdisciplinary approach of focussing on adaptational history is used in order to generate system analytic hypothesis of potential effects of forest historical developments on the current genetic state of forest tree populations in Germany. On the basis of requirements for successful adaptational processes and genetic preconditions of the sustainable use of forest ecosystem resources, the analysis reveals high restrictions of adaptedness and adaptability of forest tree populations by multiple forest historic influences on the adaptational mechanisms of self-regulation and their genetic basics. Considering the example of beech (Fagus sylvatica L.), the representation of spatial distribution of genetic parameters as well as the reconstruction of descent in space enables insights on postglacial remigration routes as well as disturbances of autochthony of current tree populations caused by forest historic impacts. Recommendations, relevant to forest practice, are derived for the sustainable treatment of forest ecosystem resources in view of the climate change. For further research on sustainable use of forests as well as the distribution of genetic variation in space and time, a first step towards the modeling of forest historic impacts and the identification of autochthony of plant populations is provided. The results confirm the indispensable meaning of the explicit consideration of an interdisciplinary, retrospective research for a successful, progressive environmental research.

Key words: adaptation, adaptedness, adaptability, autochthony, beech, biodiversity, clear cutting, coppice, environmental history, even-aged forests, Fagus, forest history, forest ecosystems, forest use systems, fragmentation, genetic variation, genetic differentiation, genetic resources, GIS, paleobotany, phylogenetics, phylogeographics, postglacial remigration, reconstruction, regeneration, positive / negative selection, silviculture, sustainability, system analysis.




Zertifizierung genetischer Eigenschaften forstlichen Saat- und Pflanzengutes auf der Basis etablierter Methoden der Populationsgenetik

[Certification of genetic properties of forest reproductive material based on established methods of population genetics]

Henning von Werder

Dissertation, Institut für Forstgenetik und Forstpflanzenzüchtung, Universität Göttingen, 2000.
[German with English summary]

Published at http://webdoc.sub.gwdg.de/diss/2000/vwerder

Zipped PDF files (0.9 MB): http://webdoc.sub.gwdg.de/diss/2000/vwerder/vwerder.zip

Abstract

Erhaltung der Anpassungsmechanismen in Baumpopulationen ist zu einem wesentlichen Anteil in der Verfügbarkeit der genetischen Informationen begründet. Diese genetischen Strukturen in Baumpopulationen können bei der Produktion von Vermehrungsgut durch die Verfahren der Beerntung, der Saatgutbehandlung und der Anzucht von Pflanzen in der Baumschule verändert werden. Die vorliegende Arbeit untersucht am Beispiel zweier Buchenbestände (Fagus sylvatica L.) die Veränderung der genetischen Strukturen (inkl. der daraus abgeleiteten Parameter) bei der Produktion von Vermehrungsgut und ihre Bedeutung für die Angepaßtheit desselben. Um den oft abstrakt verwendeten Begriff der Angepaßtheit einer Bewertung zugänglich zu machen, werden Rahmenbedingungen entwickelt, unter denen die Angepaßtheit von Vermehrungsgut meßbar ist. Anhand des Maßes der Selektionslast wird auf dieser Basis eine Zertifizierung der genetischen Eigenschaften forstlichen Saat- und Pflanzgutes vorgenommen. Mit dieser Information ausgestattet, kann der Baumschulkunde seinen ökonomischen Entscheidungsprozeß beim Erwerb von Vermehrungsgut optimieren.

Keywords: Populationsgenetik, Anpassung, Angepaßtheit, Zertifizierung, Umweltökonomie, Vermehrungsgut, Saatgut, Pflanzgut, Sortierung, Assoziationen


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