Kara Allen focuses on assessing changes in soil N-cycling processes and related microbial and soil biochemical characteristics with land-use changes from rain forest to jungle rubber, rubber and oil palm plantations. Soil N-cycling processes and microbial biomass are measured in situ using intact soil-core incubation and the 15N pool dilution technique. Soil biochemical characteristics are measured down to 2-m depth with systematic sampling design in all replicate plots of all transformation systems.