Obesity and Overweight in Adolescents and Adults in Urban Delhi, India
Economic research in India has traditionally focused on undernutrition. One of the reasons for this is that India is home to the largest number of undernourished people in the world and the prevalence of undernutrition, and especially among children and women, is still high. However, overweight and obesity, generally considered problems of high income, western countries, has emerged as a major problem in India too. This is concerning because there is compelling evidence that obesity contributes to the chronic diseases such as cancer, diabetes and cardio-vascular ailments.
Validation Study of Hemoglobin Measurement App
The prevalence of anaemia, particularly iron-deficiency anaemia, is high among the population of rural Bihar, India, especially among women and children. Combating anaemia is a key concern of the central and state governments of India and several large-scale programmes of iron supplementation are in place.
Anaemia is usually diagnosed with a blood test measuring haemoglobin. Given its costs and the required material, identifying individuals with anaemia remains a challenge in rural Bihar.
Impact Evaluation of a Commitment Savings Intervention in Pune, India
This project tests the effectiveness of a new "soft commitment" device for increasing savings rates and reducing temptation spending among urban slum dwellers in the city of Pune, India. We distribute sealed savings boxes to 1600 participants. 50% of participants are randomized into the treatment group in order to receive an additional portable savings device (a "carry around" purse).
Diabetes Peer Education Aceh
Public health systems in low- and middle-income countries are overburdened with the demands of delivering care to those with communicable and non-communicable diseases. People with the latter in particular often require long-term monitoring and support to achieve good health. For diabetes, inadequate care or no access to care can lead to high rates of uncontrolled diabetes and complications. It is unclear, however, how better care can be provided in an environment with few resources, as is the case in low- and middle-income countries. Peer education may have particular potential in low-income settings in complementing diabetes care without being a large additional strain on the health system. This study contributes to the evidence on the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of peer education in improving diabetes management in a low-income setting in Indonesia and in other comparable contexts.
Validation Study of AINA Hemoglobin and Lipid Point-of-Care Device
In low- and middle-income countries such as Indonesia, public health systems often have to deal with the two-fold burden of communicable and non-communicable diseases and are overburdened by achieving good long-term monitoring and support of patients with chronic diseases. Consequences are lacking metabolic control and high complication rates particularly for those with few resources. Therefore this study aims to investigate the accuracy and suitability of a tablet- and smartphone-based point-of-care (POC) test for monitoring of glycated hemoglobin and lipid profiles in populations with high cardiovascular disease risk living in low or middle-income settings. The primary objective of this study is to compare the accuracy of a tablet- and smartphone-based point-of-care for glycated hemoglobin and key lipid measurements and triglycerides to the current local gold standard.
Data Collection for Nigerian Partnership for Education Project
The Nigerian Partnership for Education Project (NIPEP) aims to improve access and quality of basic education in Sokoto State, Nigeria.The current situation in the visited schools hinders learning outcomes and performance of pupils. An insufficient school infrastructure compounded with high absenteeism of teachers and students, pose great barriers for primary education. Furthermore, cultural barriers like religion and gender stigmas, that prevent providing equal educational opportunities to boys and girls, only aggravate the challenges. Therefore, NIPEP is tasked with the goal to improve access and quality of basic education in Nigeria, with a particular attention on girls’ participation.
Exploring Channels of Parental Discrimination against Girls in India
Although research has examined the effects and causes of son preference in India widely, studies fail to cleanly identify the underlying reasons for lower parental investments into daughters. We examine how believed market returns to investment into children - one possible cause - affect parental investment decisions.
For this we have conducted a lab-in-the field experiment with sixth grade students and their parents in rural Bihar. The analysis of our lab-in-the-field experiment is still ongoing.
Mental Health Aceh
Common mental disorders such as depression and anxiety can contribute substantially to the global economic burden of diseases. Yet, their prevalence and patterns in low- and middle-income countries are not sufficiently explored.
This study aimed at shedding more light on the mental health situation in Aceh, Indonesia.
Evaluation of the Impact of a New General Hospital in Managua, Nicaragua
In developing countries, high population growth and rural-urban migration put considerable pressure on existing urban health infrastructure and human resources. Managua, the capital of Nicaragua, for the first time in 32 years has built a new general hospital.
The new hospital is projected to attend to about 1,000 patients per day and is expected to relieve some of the pressure on resources across all levels of the city's health system. The research will carefully take into account spillover effects at other hospitals, as well as at the lower level health facilities, such as health posts and health centers. Of all population groups, the new hospital is likely to especially benefit pregnant women and newborns, as there is currently only one hospital dedicated to support their needs. The impact evaluation therefore pays special attention to pregnancy and birth outcomes.
3ie Impact Evaluation Report for Gram Varta
The Gram Varta programme aims to improve women and child health indicators in the Madhepura district of Bihar through community empowerment and behavioural change. The study utilized a randomized control design of 180 villages and conducted survey research in 6,000 households in about 90 villages pre and post- implementation of Gram Varta. The results from the survey were further enhanced by qualitative interviews with participants and facilitators. Using community based participatory action research and learning, health-training meetings were held in local women’s self-help groups, where health challenges related to health, nutrition, water and sanitation (HNWASH) were identified and prioritized for the purpose of developing community-based solutions and evaluations of the strategies.
Evaluating the Impact of Safe Childbirth Checklists on the Quality of Care and Birth Outcomes in (Public) Health Facilities
Despite a global commitment and remarkable achievements to improve maternal and neonatal mortality, 800 women and 7700 newborns die each day from complications during pregnancy, childbirth, and in the postnatal period. In efforts to reduce maternal mortality and morbidity, the World Health Organization (WHO) has developed a Safe Childbirth Checklist (SCC) to support the delivery of essential maternal and perinatal care practices and address the major causes of maternal and neonatal deaths. The checklist is a simple tool to help health-care workers provide high quality care during birth - from the time the woman is admitted, through childbirth, until the woman and baby are safely discharged.
Public Provision of Emergency Obstetric Care: A Case Study in Two Districts of Pakistan
Low-and middle-income countries continue to struggle to meet the target reductions of maternal and child mortality. In Pakistan, estimates in 2015 approximate a maternal mortality rate of 178 women per 100 000 live births and a neonatal mortality rate of 46 neonates per 1000 live births. A particular challenge is Pakistan’s high rate of neonatal mortality in comparison to its neighbouring countries. Pakistan is one out of five countries where together half of the global neonatal deaths occur. As the provision of services and facilities is one of the key elements vital to reducing this rate as well as the maternal mortality rate, this study investigates the status of the delivery of essential obstetric care provided by the public health sector in two districts in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa in 2015 aiming to highlight areas where critical improvements are needed.
Improving Children Health and Cognition using Double Fortified Salt: Evidence from School-Based Nutrition Intervention in India
We present experimental evidence on the impact of delivering double-fortified salt (DFS), salt fortified with iron and iodine, through the Indian school-feeding program called “mid-day meal” on anemia, cognition, and math and reading outcomes of primary school children. We conducted a field experiment that randomly provided a one-year supply of DFS at a subsidized price to public primary schools in one of the poorest regions of India. The DFS treatment had significantly positive impacts on hemoglobin levels and reduced the prevalence of any form of anemia by 20 percent but these health gains did not translate into statistically significant impacts on cognition and test scores. While exploring the heterogeneity in effects, we find that treatment had statistically significant gains in anemia and test scores among children with higher treatment compliance. We further estimate that the intervention was very cost effective and can potentially be scaled up rather easily.