The list of famous mathematicians that are connected to Göttingen is quite long. Carl Friedrich Gauß was once director of the observatory in Göttingen. To this day he is counted to be one of the most distinguished mathematicians of all time. 1851, Bernhard Riemann did his PhD under Carl Friedrich Gauß in Göttingen. To date the famous Riemann hypothesis is still unsolved.
From 1895 to 1930, David Hilbert was professor in Göttingen. 1900 he proposed the famous 23 Hilbert's problems that till this day are not all solved yet. The optimistic quote "Wir müssen wissen, wir werden wissen." ("We have to know, we will know") stems from him.
1919, Emmy Noether habilitated in Göttingen and thereby was the first woman to habilitate in mathematics in Germany.
These and more curricula vitae come from here.