Rural-urban relations and flows and related socio-cultural transformations in rural Jambi, Indonesia

Local landscapes mirror global processes, they are not isolated places within global space. The internal diversities of specific localities can be explained inter alia by their specific integration into broader-scale networks. In this line, rural-urban interactions play a major role in landscape transformation. "Landscape refers to the cultural meanings and uses of land and can be seen as the human element of the environment. Therefore the concept of ´landscape´ can be used to draw connections among people, between people and places, and between societies in their environment" (Schaich et al., 2010, 270).

The aim of this research is to explain spatial and temporal socio-cultural heterogeneities in Jambi Province by investigation of rural-urban linkages and respective socio-cultural flows, e.g. information, norms, and notions. Potential differences between actors and actor-spaces concerning i) their socio-economic integration into the market network, ii) their integration in social networks and iii) the actual influence of those interactions on cultural landscape formation, which is based on individual valuations of information flows and sources, is to be uncovered.
Research will be guided by the hypothesis that the intensities and variations of transformation processes depend not only upon economic, but on socio-cultural exchange with regional and supra-regional urban centres. The socio-cultural exchange in turn depends on spatial distance to these urban centres. Hence, particular emphasis lies on the influence of non-place based actors.

Concept and Methods
To explain transformation processes of the cultural landscape in Jambi Province first we will review literature. The network analysis, then, is based upon village case studies along a rural-urban continuum, i.e. a conceptual transect. Villages (10-12) will be selected due to socio-economic and agro-ecological characteristics and are part of the C-group sampling frame (Faust et al., 2013). Semi-structured in-depth interviews (narrative, biographic) and focus group discussions on village level will be conducted; participants are identified via snowball sampling. The generated interviews and discussions will be recorded, transcribed, and extracted by content analyses. Socio-economic networks are geo-visualized through participative network mappings and by above mentioned content analysis.

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