A major strength of EFForTS is that it integrates ecological and socioeconomic perspectives, investigating biota, ecosystem services and human dimensions in a comprehensive way. With this approach, research in Phase 2 builds on extensive experience in studying ecological and socioeconomic impacts of rainforest conversion and follow-up land-use changes of Phase 1. Pursuing the overall research questions (see Continuation of research and new directives of Phase 2), the ecological and socioeconomic groups jointly investigate four Foci that form the backbone of the CRC (Fig. 1):
Foci Fig. 1

The four Foci and the overarching joint hypotheses complement each other as they integrate the general aims of the CRC. They form a natural series from more basic ecological and socioeconomic work (Focus 1), via consequences of these settings at the landscape scale (Focus 2) and integration of ecological and socioeconomic studies at landscape and regional scales (Focus 3), up to policy issues and feedbacks to the ecological and socioeconomic settings (Focus 4).
Foci Fig. 2