Flügel, Alexander, Prof. Dr.

  • 1993 MD Ludwig-Maximilians-University (LMU) Munich
  • 2002-2007 Group leader at the Institute of Neuroimmunology, Max-Planck-Institute for Neurobiology, Martinsried, Munich
  • 2008 Associate professor for Experimental Immunology at the Institute for Immunology, LMU Munich
  • since 12/2008 Full professor and director of the Institute for Neuroimmunology and Multiple Sclerosis Research, University of Göttingen

  • Major Research Interests

  • Neuroimmunology
  • T cell biology
  • Intravital imaging

  • The focus of my interest lies on the mechanisms and factors that allow T cells to enter the central nervous system, to communicate in this milieu and to influence the brain tissue.
    My colleagues and I pursue the following aims, i) development of new models and tools to study CNS autoimmunity; ii) revealing the basics of pathogenesis in (auto-)immune diseases of the nervous system; iii) deducing and developing new therapeutical approaches; and iv) analyzing the mechanisms of action for (adverse) effects of new therapeutical procedures.

    Homepage Department/Research Group:


    Selected Recent Publications

  • Lodygin D, Hermann M, Schweingruber N, Flügel-Koch C, Watanabe T, Schlosser C, Merlini A, Körner H, Chang H-F, Fischer HJ, Reichardt HM, Zagrebelsky M, Mollenhauer B, Frahm J, Stadelmann C, Kügler S, Fitzner D, Haberl M, Odoardi F, Flügel A (2019) ß-Synuclein reactive T cells induce autoimmune CNS grey matter degeneration: Nature 566:503-508.
  • Schläger C, Körner H, Krueger M, Vidoli S, Haberl M, Mielke D, Brylla E, Issekutz T, Cabañas C, Nelson PJ, Ziemssen T, Rohde V, Bechmann I, Lodygin D, Odoardi F, Flügel A (2016) Effector T-cell trafficking between the leptomeninges and the cerebrospinal fluid. Nature 530:349-353
  • Flach A, Litke T, Strauss J, Haberl M, Cordero Gómez C, Reindl M, Saiz A, Fehling HJ, Wienands J, Odoardi F, Lühder F, Flügel A (2016) Autoantibody-boosted T-cell reactivation in the target organ triggers manifestation of autoimmune CNS disease. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 113:3323-3328.
  • Lodygin D, Odoardi F, Schläger C, Körner H, Kitz A, Nosov M, van den Brandt J, Reichardt HM, Haberl M, Flügel A (2013) A combination of fluorescent NFAT and H2B sensors uncovers dynamics of T cell activation in real time during CNS autoimmunity. Nature Medicine 19:784-790.
  • Odoardi F, Sie C, Streyl K, Ulaganathan VK, Schläger C, Lodygin D, Heckelsmiller K, Nietfeld W, Ellwart J, Klinkert WE, Lottaz C, Nosov M, Brinkmann V, Spang R, Lehrach H, Vingron M, Wekerle H, Flügel-Koch C, Flügel A (2012) T cells become licensed in the lung to enter the central nervous system. Nature 488:675-679.
  • Cordiglieri C, Odoardi F, Zhang B, Nebel M, Kawakami N, Klinkert WE, Lodygin D, Lühder F, Breunig E, Schild D, Ulaganathan VK, Dornmair K, Dammermann W, Potter BV, Guse AH, Flügel A (2010) Nicotinic acid adenine dinucleotide phosphate-mediated calcium signalling in effector T cells regulates autoimmunity of the central nervous system. Brain 133:1930-1943
  • Bartholomäus I, Kawakami N, Odoardi F, Schläger C, Miljkovic D, Ellwart JW, Klinkert WE, Flugel-Koch C, Issekutz TB, Wekerle H, Flügel A (2009) Effector T cell interactions with meningeal vascular structures in nascent autoimmune CNS lesions. Nature 462:94-98
  • Odoardi F, Kawakami N, Klinkert WE, Wekerle H, Flügel A (2007) Blood-borne soluble protein antigen intensifies T cell activation in autoimmune CNS lesions and exacerbates clinical disease. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 104:18625-18630
  • Odoardi F, Kawakami N, Li Z, Cordiglieri C, Streyl K, Nosov M, Klinkert WE, Ellwart JW, Bauer J, Lassmann H, Wekerle H, Flügel A (2007) Instant effect of soluble antigen on effector T cells in peripheral immune organs during immunotherapy of autoimmune encephalomyelitis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 104:920-925
  • Kawakami N, Nägerl UV, Odoardi F, Bonhoeffer T, Wekerle H, A. Flügel A. (2005) Live imaging of effector cell trafficking and autoantigen recognition within the unfolding autoimmune encephalomyelitis lesion. Journal of Experimental Medicine, 201(11): 1805-14