The library of the Lichtenberg-Kolleg is located in the west wing of the Historical Observatory. This room was originally a preparation room for astronomical observations and, starting in 1831, Gauss was using the room for measuring magnetism. A stone floor slab in the southwest corner testifies of this history. The wall paintings on the west wall were restored true to the originals during the renovation of the Historical Observatory.

The gallery, which can be accessed by a spiral staircase, and the built-in bookcases originate from the conversion of 1887/88. In 1930, the library of the Historical Observatory was moved from the eastern preparation hall to the western preparation hall, and the wooden gallery was equipped with shelves for this purpose.

Currently, a reference library is being built that will house important references and manuals from the humanities and social sciences. In addition, the publications generated at the Lichtenberg-Kolleg and the works dedicated to the library by the Fellows will also be collected there. Fellows also have access to the comprehensive resources of the State and University Library of Göttingen (SUB) with its digitalization centre, reprographic services, and digital libraries as well as the institute and seminar libraries.