First, We intend to conduct a systematic review of the
existing evidence, wherein firstly we would evaluate theoretical papers that
explain the link between female empowerment and growth.
Second, we will systematically review the macro-evidence on the link between gender inequality and growth.
What does the macro literature find on the impact of gender
inequalities, with particular emphasis on gender gaps in education, employment,
and pay on long-term growth? Do countries that are more equal grow faster? What
are the main demographic and economic transmission channels identified in the
macro literature? What are the main limitations of the different macro studies
and which ones are particularly methodologically credible?
Third, we intend to methodologically examine the observational micro evidence on the impact of gender gaps in assets and inputs on efficiency and productivity.
What does the observational micro literature say on the
impact of gender gaps on efficiency and productivity, with associated impact on
economic growth? Do gender gaps in access to input and assets reduce
productivity of female producers, with associated negative consequences for
Lastly, we will conduct a meta-analysis of the impact of interventions based on natural experiments or randomized control trials aimed at fostering female economic empowerment and their effect on growth.
Do interventions that aim at empowering women generate the
expected results on economic performance in the short and in the long term? Are
these interventions equally effective across different cultural and
institutional contexts? Which institutional contexts are more favorable for
female economic empowerment to affect economic growth?
The analysis focuses on interventions that i) improve access to education, ii) expand access to financial services iii) promote female labor force participation, iv) foster political participation, v) allocate income to women, vi) reform anti-discriminatory laws and vii) improve children's development outcomes. Special focus will be given to studies in middle income and poor countries.