Within the C04 project, my research focuses on the sustainability of cocoa cultivation among small-holders in Central Sulawesi. Ecologically unsustainable farming methods such as open monocultures are generating comparatively more income for the farmers than sustainable agroforestry systems. This is only true in the short and medium run though. As these cultivation systems are also comparatively prone to diseases and pests, they reduce crop yields and thus farmers’ income in the long term. Once caught in this situation, rainforest conversion into new cultivable land usually is the only solution to sustain farmers’ income, contributing to the loss of a significant ecosystem. The aim of my research therefore is to explore the interconnections between ecological and social sustainability and to understand farmers’ incentives and cultivation system choices. As a basis, it is important to identify the determinants of farmers’ income from cocoa cultivation, to analyze factors of environmentally sustainable cocoa cultivation methods and to uncover the drivers of land-use change. In a final step, I am going to conceive incentive systems for farmers to dissolve the alleged trade off between income generation and environmental sustainability.