Logo KoKoHs

Projekt ExMo
Vermittlungs- und Beurteilungskompetenzen zum Experimentieren: Modellierung, Validierung und Messinstrumentwicklung

im Rahmen des BMBF-Forschungsprogramms "Kompetenzmodellierung und Kompetenzerfassung im Hochschulsektor (KoKoHs)"

Teaching Competencies and Assessment Competencies in Experimental Biology Lessons: Modeling, Validation and Development of a Test Instrument (ExMo)

The project focusses on teacher trainees’ teaching competencies and assessment competencies in experimental biology lessons. Since experiments are a central method for solving scientific questions in biology lessons, the advancement of student competencies in experimentation plays a prominent role in biology education (KMK 2004, 2008). As little is known about the question which competencies biology teacher trainees need for teaching experimental lessons and assessing student achievement in experimental lessons, this project aims to contribute to this knowledge by developing a theoretical model for biology teacher trainees’ competencies, validating the model and developing a test instrument based on the model. The model focuses on the competencies of planning and analyzing experimental biology lessons and on the competencies of assessing student achievement in experimental biology lessons.

ExMo is a joint research project of Westfälische-Wilhelms-Universität Münster, Georg-August-Universität Göttingen and Otto-Friedrich Universität Bamberg. At Westfälische Wilhelms Universität Münster, Prof. Dr. Marcus Hammann and Sascha Hasse work on the subproject ”Teaching Experimental Biology Lessons”. At Georg-August Universität Göttingen, Prof. Dr. Susanne Bögeholz and Cora Joachim work on the subproject “Assessment of Student Achievement in Experimental Biology Lessons”. At Otto-Friedrich Universität Bamberg, Prof. Dr. Claus Carstensen works on multi-dimensional modeling.

The subproject “Teaching Experimental Biology Lessons” aims at developing a normative framework specifying the competencies biology teacher trainees need to effectively plan and analyze experimental biology lessons at high schools. A range of different frameworks and models have been combined for this purpose, in particular PCK models, the SDDS model (Klahr 2000), and frameworks of educational standards for higher education. Also, this project aims at developing a test instrument consisting of open-ended and context-based test items, which confront teacher trainees with authentic classroom scenarios to be planned and analyzed. Item development follows the approach of rational item construction (Schmidt-Atzert & Amelang 2012). In consideration of Hammann’s (2004) competence model of pupils experimentation skills, test items focus on teacher trainees’ ability to foster pupils’ competence to í) form hypotheses, ii) plan experiments and iii) analyze data. The approach to item development is generalizable beyond the specific field of teaching and analyzing experimental biology lessons, as items focus on making informed decisions about teaching goals, teaching strategies, methods and media. Test items are pre-tested via think-aloud protocols (N = 15; Ericsson & Simon 1993).

The subproject “Assessment of Student Achievement in Experimental Biology Lessons” aims at the theoretical foundation of biology teacher trainees’ competencies of assessing student achievement. In order to check empirically and validate assessment competencies in experimenting, a test is being developed according to a theory-based model. In consideration of Hammann’s (2004) competence model of pupils experimentation skills, the items for testing teacher trainees’ assessment competencies present student achievement concerning í) forming hypotheses, ii) planning experiments and iii) analyzing the data. Typical high-school student conceptions, frequent mistakes and specific challenges when experimenting are taken into account. The test items incorporate specific methodological aspects of experimenting. They are context-based and present authentic classroom scenarios as well as descriptions of high-school students’ achievement. Test items are developed and tested with think-aloud protocols (N = 17; Ericsson & Simon 1993). The protocols will be analyzed by means of qualitative content analysis according to Mayring (2010). The findings are expected to provide insights into teacher trainees’ conceptions of assessing student achievement as well as into improving the test items for the following quantitative study with respect to competence modeling.

For both subprojects, the development of the normative framework and the item develop-ment take place in an iterative process described by Wilson (2005). Up to now, the items make use of the contexts of seed germination and photosynthesis. Further, the test instruments will be validated. In particular, content validation is examined in expert workshops. Test items and teacher trainees’ responses are closely examined to refine the theoretical assumptions that inform item development. After two pilot studies (N = 60; N = 300), involving teacher trainees at all three universities, the main study (N = 500) will be undertaken. The constructs will be validated (convergent and discriminant validity) (Moosbrugger & Kelava 2007). After combining the data of the two subprojects of ExMo, multi-dimensional modeling at Otto-Friedrich Universität Bamberg will provide information about interrelations between planning experimental lessons, analyzing experimental lesson and assessing student achievement in experimental biology lessons.

The findings are applicable beyond the context of national teacher training programs for biology teachers. The findings have implications for other science subjects and for higher education programs in other countries. Further, long-term goals of the project are the development of diagnostic tests for measuring the outcomes of teacher education and for testing the effectiveness of specific trainings in this area.

Outcomes - Publikationen zum Projekt

Ericsson, K., & Simon, H. (1993). Protocol Analysis: Verbal Reports as Data (2nd ed.). Boston: MIT Press.

Hammann, M. (2004). Kompetenzentwicklungsmodelle: Merkmale und ihre Bedeutung – dargestellt anhand von Kompetenzen beim Experimentieren. Der mathematische und naturwissenschaftliche Unterricht, 57(4), 196-203.

Gesellschaft für Fachdidaktik e.V. (2005). Fachdidaktische Kompetenzbereiche, Kompetenzen und Standards für die 1. Phase der Lehrerbildung (BA+MA).

Klahr, D. (2000). Exploring science: The cognition and development of discovery processes. Cambridge: MIT Press.

KMK (2008). Ländergemeinsame inhaltliche Anforderungen für die Fachwissenschaft und Fachdidaktik in der Lehrerbildung.

KMK (2004). Bildungsstandards im Fach Biologie für den Mittleren Schulabschluss.

KMK (2004). Standards für die Lehrerbildung: Bildungswissenschaften

Mayring, P. (2010). Qualitative Inhaltsanalyse. Grundlagen und Techniken (11. Auflage). Weinheim und Basel: Beltz Verlag.

Moosbrugger, H., & Kelava, A. (2012). Testtheorie und Fragebogenkonstruktion (2, aktualisierte u überarbeitete Auflage ed.). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer-Verlag.

Schmidt-Atzert, L., & Amelang, M. (2012). Psychologische Diagnostik (Lehrbuch mit online-materialien) (5 Aufl..). S.L.: Springer-Verlag.

Shulman, L. S. (1986). Those who understand: Knowledge growths in teaching. Educational Researcher, 15(2), 4-14.

Wilson, M. (2005). Constructing measures: An item response modeling approach. London: Routledge.

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