Silviculture and Forest Ecology of the Temperate Zones

Research since 2007

current projects

Objective (Subject)Using terrestrial laser scanning for a quantitative assessment of forest structure along a gradient of management intensity
ContentThe high structural heterogeneity of primary forests is assumed to positively affect several ecosystem services and function, such as biodiversity, ecosystem resilience or ecosystem adaptability. Therefore, today’s silvicultural practices often try to mimic, or accelerate the formation of old-growth structures in managed forests.
Despite our knowledge on the importance of structures it is still difficult to measure the three-dimensional stand structure in a quantitative manner. For this reason we have little information about the structural differences between primary forests, managed forests and protected forests where management was ceased for several years (e.g. national parks). With the recent advancements in terrestrial laser scanning we now have the means to analyze the relationships between detailed spatial patterns of a forest and ecosystem functions.
In this project we aim at gaining a deeper understanding of forest structure and its modification through management along a gradient of management intensity. We will use 3D point clouds to address scale-issues of structure as well as determine, amongst others, old-growthness, space-filling, and structural complexity.
Appropriation period01.04.2017 – 31.03.2020
Funded byDr. Erich-Ritter-Stiftung
Persons in chargeMelissa Stiers und Katharina Willim
Publicationsunavailable so far

objektiveFrom fundamental biodiversity research to practical recommendations for a biodiversity-orientated forest management - A Knowledge Transfer Project -
ContentSince its establishment, the DFG-Biodiversity Exploratories (BE) have created a huge amount of data and results regarding the effects of forest management on biodiversity, and of biodiversity on ecosystem functioning, goods and services. This offers a great potential for knowledge transfer from biodiversity research to forestry and conservation practice, and vice versa. The urgent request by local stakeholders to make the results from the BE available and useable for their daily and practical work underlines the importance of such a transfer. The main objectives of the project are: a)to transfer BE results to scales most relevant for forestry practice and nature conservation, and b)to develop and transfer practice-orientated management options that optimize forest goods and services and biodiversity conservation at real forest landscapes.
Appropriation period01.04.2017-31.03.2020
Funded byGerman Science Foundation (DFG)
partnersFederal Competence Centre Forestry, Eberswalde; Public Forestry Office Hainich-Werratal; Hainich Nationalpark; Public Forestry Office Reutlingen; Public Forestry Office Leinefelde; Public Forestry Office Heiligenstadt; Forest Research and Competence Centre Gotha; City of Mühlhausen
persons in chargeDr. Steffi Heinrichs and Dr. Martina Mund
publicationsUnavailable so far

Objective (Subject)Study the regeneration patterns of IUCN’s red-listed species and their dependence of environmental factors in the Cat Ba National Park, Vietnam
ContentIn view of its floristic biodiversity the Cat Ba National Park is one of the most important national parks in Vietnam. It is located on the limestone archipelago in north-eastern Viet Nam and consists of thousands of islands and islets. Cat Ba National Park contains 58 species which are listed in Vietnam’s Red-list, and another 16 species which are listed in IUCN’s Red-list. Against this background, the importance to preserve their habitats is of national and global importance. Due to distinct characteristics of the limestone terrain and various anthropogenic effects, many of the Red-listed species currently only regenerate poorly. Furthermore, requirements for their successful regeneration have partly not been studied in detail. Therefore, this project focusses on assessing the effect of abiotic and biotic environmental factors on the regeneration of the Red-listed species.
Appropriation period01.04.2016 – 31.03.2020
Funded byVietnam Government and Rufford Small Grant
PartnersCat Ba National Park
Persons in chargePham van Vien
Publicationsunavailable so far

Objective (Subject) Genetic und silvicultural studies on origin, growth and stem quality of red oak (Quercus rubra L.) in Germany (FKZ 22023314)
ContentThe origin of selected red oak stands across Germany shall be identified by DNA markers. In addition, growth and stem quality in relation to neighborhood competition is quantified. Regeneration inventories aim to determine the invasive potential of red oak.
Appropriation period 01.04.2016 - 31.03.2019
Funded by Federal Ministry of Food and Agriculture
PartnersDepartment of Forest Genetics and Forest Tree Breeding
Person in chargeKatharina Burkardt, Tim Pettenkofer
PublicationsUnavailable so far

Objective (Subject)Ungulate management and biodiversity in managed forests (FKZ 3515 685 B01)
ContentOver-abundant deer populations may lead to species loss and a resulting destabilization of forest ecosystems. In four pilot regions new strategies are tested to achieve a more balanced situation. More specifically, the effect of different hunting strategies on vegetation and wildlife is studied and economically quantified (for more information see:
Appropriation period 15.09.2015 - 30.08.2021
funded by Federal Agency for Nature Conservation (BfN) with funds of the Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety (BMU)
partnersArbeitsgemeinschaft Naturgemäße Waldwirtschaft (Hans von der Goltz) , TU München (Prof. Thomas Knoke), TU Dresden (Prof. Michael Müller)
person in chargeDr. Torsten Vor
publicationsUnavailable so far

Objective (Subject)Forest structure. Core project of the Exploratories for large-scale and long-term functional biodiversity research
ContentThe project is one of the core projects of the German Biodiversity Exploratories. The aim is to provide comprehensive sets of data on (i) forest structure, (ii) forest composition, (iii) forest productivity and (iv) forest land use intensity in order to support functional biodiversity research (that is, providing explanatory variables for core projects, contributing projects and synthesis of the Biodiversity Exploratories) and to uncover interdependency between structure, composition, productivity and land use intensity of forests, respectively (that is, analysing effects of forest management and natural development). Data will be sampled using methods of "classical" stand inventory, airborne laser scanning and terrestrial laser scanning.
Appropriation period01.04.2014 - 31.03.2017
funded byGerman Science Foundation
partnersBiodiversity Exploratories (DFG Priority Programm 1374)
person in chargeDr. Peter Schall and Prof. Dr. Christian Ammer, PhD student Martin Ehbrecht
publicationsSchall P, Gossner MM, Heinrichs S, Fischer M, Boch S, Prati D, Jung K, Baumgartner V, Blaser S, Böhm S, Buscot F, Daniel R, Goldmann K, Kaiser K, Kahl T, Lange M, Müller J, Overmann J, Renner SC, Schulze E-D, Sikorski J, Tschapka M, Türke M, Weisser WW, Wemheuer B, Wubet T, Ammer C (2018) The impact of even-aged and uneven-aged forest management on regional biodiversity of multiple taxa in European beech forests. Journal of Applied Ecology 55: 267-278

Ammer C, Schall P, Gossner M M, Heinrichs S, Boch S, Prati D, Jung K, Baumgartner V, Blaser S, Böhm S, Buscot F, Daniel R, Goldmann K, Kaiser K, Kahl T, Lange M, Müller J, Overmann J, Renner S C, Schulze E-D, Sikorski J, Tschapka M, Türke M, Weisser W W, Wemheuer B, Wubet T, Fischer M (2017) Waldbewirtschaftung und Biodiversität: Vielfalt ist gefragt. Allgemeine Forstzeitschrift/Der Wald 72 (17): 20-25

Ehbrecht M, Schall P, Ammer C, Seidel D (2017) Quantifying stand structural complexity and its relationship with forest management, tree species diversity and microclimate. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 242: 1-9

Liang J, Crowther TC, Picard N, Wiser S, Zhou M, Alberti G, Schulze E-D, McGuire AD, Bozzato F, Pretzsch H, de-Miguel S, Paquette A, Hérault B, Scherer-Lorenzen M, Barrett CB, Glick HB, Hengeveld GM, Nabuurs G-J, Pfautsch S, Viana H, Vibrans AC, Ammer C, Schall P, Verbyla D, Tchebakova N, Fischer M, Watson JV, Chen HYH, Lei X, Schelhaas M-J, Lu H, Gianelle D, Parfenova EI, Salas C, Lee E, Lee B, Kim HS, Bruelheide H, Coomes DA, Piotto D, Sunderland T, Schmid B, Gourlet-Fleury S, Sonké B, Tavani R, Zhu J, Brandl S, Vayreda J, Kitahara F, Searle EB, Neldner VJ, Ngugi MR, Baraloto C, Frizzera L, Balazy R, Oleksyn J, Zawila-Niedzwiecki T, Bouriaud O, Bussotti F, Finér L, Jaroszewicz B, Jucker T, Valladares F, Jagodzinski AM, Peri PL, Gonmadje C, Marthy W, O'Brien T, Martin EH, Marshall AR, Rovero F, Bitariho R, Niklaus PA, Alvarez-Loayza P, Chamuya N, Valencia R, Mortier F, Wortel V, Engone-Obiang NL, Ferreira LV, Odeke DE, Vasquez RM, Lewis SL, Reich PB (2016) Positive biodiversity - productivity relationship predominant in global forests. Science 354: 6309. DOI: 10.1126/science.aaf8957

Ehbrecht M, Schall P, Juchheim J, Ammer C, Seidel D (2016) Effective number of layers: a new measure for quantifying vertical stand structure based on terrestrial LiDAR. Forest Ecology and Management 380: 212-223

Allan E, Bossdorf O, Dormann CF, Prati D, Gossner MM, Tscharntke T, Blüthgen N, Bellach M, Birkhofer K, Boch S, Böhm S, Börschig C, Chatzinotas A, Christ S, Daniel R, Diekötter T, Fischer C, Friedl T, Glaser K, Hallmann C, Hodac L, Hölzel N, Jung K, Klein AM, Klaus VH, Kleinebecker T, Krauss J, Lange M, Morris EK, Müller J, Nacke H, Pasalic E, Rillig MC, Rothenwöhrer C, Schall P, Scherber C, Schulze W, Socher SA, Steckel J, Steffan-Dewenter I, Türke M, Weiner CN, Werner M, Westphal C, Wolters V, Wubet T, Gockel S, Gorke M, Hemp A, Renner SC, Schöning I, Pfeiffer S, König-Ries B, Buscot F, Linsenmair KE, Schulze E-D, Weisser WW, Fischer M (2014) Interannual variation in land-use intensity enhances grassland multidiversity. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 111 (1): 308-313. doi:10.1073/pnas.1312213111

Schall P, Ammer C (2013) How to quantify forest management intensity in Central European Forests. European Journal of Forest Research 132: 379-396. DOI: 10.1007/s10342-013-0681-6

Objective (Subject)Testing the effectiveness of blue, acoustic and multi-colored wildlife warning reflectors to mitigate wildlife-vehicle collisions on roads
ContentWildlife-vehicle collisions (WVC) cause a serious threat to both humans and wildlife and an economic loss of more than half a billion - in 2013 only in Germany. To mitigate WVS's, a variety of measures have been developed and implemented. One such measure is wildlife warning reflectors. Their efficacy has been tested in a variety of studies focusing on a potential change in fatalities or on the behavioral response of wildlife towards these reflectors. Despite the different conclusions of these studies, they have been testing white and red wildlife warning reflectors, although other studies have revealed that deer and many other mammals are dichromatic and not sensitive to light longer than 550 nm, while red has a wavelength of 630-790 nm. Our project evaluates the effectiveness of blue, acoustic and multi-colored wildlife warning reflectors in a BACI approach focusing on both, the change in fatalities as well as the behavioral responses of wildlife towards these reflectors, with an additional inclusion of spatial and temporal parameters.
Appropriation period15.05.2014 - 14.05.2018
funded byThe German Insurers (GDV)
partnersProf. Dr. Torsten Hothorn, University of Zurich
Persons in chargeAnke Benten und Dr. Torsten Vor
publicationsunavailable so far

Objective (Subject)IMPAC3 - Novel genotypes for mixed cropping allow for IMProved sustainable land use ACross arable land, grassland and woodland
ContentMixed cropping systems have the potential to enhance production by improving resource use. A field experiment was established where 8 different Populus-hybrids (focal plant species A) and 3 different Robinia clones (mixture plant species B) were established as monocultures and in varying mixtures. The main target of this subproject is to assess the impact of intra- and interspecific competition on biomass production and resource use. Repeated measurements of root collar diameter, tree height, crown structure and leaf-area-index will be carried out, and trees will be harvested for biomass estimation and the development of allometric functions.
Appropriation period01.02.2015 - 31.01.2018
funded byFederal Ministry of Education and Research
partnersDepartment of Forest Botany and Tree Physiology and Department of Forest Genetics and Forest Tree Breeding at the University of Göttingen
Persons in chargeJessica Rebola Lichtenberg
publicationsEuring D, Rebola-Lichtenberg J, Ropertz J, Leinemann L, Ammer C, Polle A (2017) Auswirkungen von Mischungen auf Ertrag von KUP. Holz-Zentralblatt 143 (3): 88

Objective (Subject)Impact of von intra- und interspezific competition on timber quality
ContentThe conversion from pure to mixed forest stands is one objective of forest politics of the German federal and state governments. As part of this conversion the percentage of deciduous trees has already increased by 7% between 2002 and 2012 (BMEL 2014). By now pure and mixed stands have been compared in many aspects. However, not much is known on the effect of fine-grain mixtures on timber quality of hardwoods. Wood quality features, especially branchiness and diameter, can be influenced by silvicultural treatments i.e. competition control. In this project the influence of intra- and interspecific competition on wood quality of European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) will be investigated. For this purpose quality grading is conducted at the standing tree ? via terrestrial laserscanning -, at the lying stem and at the final product.
Appropriation period15.11.2014 - 15.10.2017
funded byMinistry for Science and Culture of Lower Saxony
partnersworking groups of the study programme materials research on wood
Persons in chargeKirsten Höwler
publicationsHöwler, K, Annighöfer P, Ammer C, Seidel D (2017) Competition improves quality-related external stem characteristics of Fagus sylvatica L. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 47: 1603-1613

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  • Objective (Subject)SHAPE- The impact of forest management intensity and neighborhood diversity on tree crown attributes
    ContentThe structure and shape of a tree crowns is related to tree growth and is of special importance for species of various taxa. It is well known that crown dimensions can be controlled by forest management. However, information on how silvicultural interventions and competition by neighboring trees modify the shape of tree crowns and branch ramification structure is scarce. This project uses terrestrial laser scanning to provide such information based on three-dimensional models of trees that grew up in stands that are characterized by different management intensities and species diversity. Furthermore, the unique spatial information will be used to measure and compare three-dimensional space filling in forest stands of varying management intensities and species diversity.
    Appropriation period01.04.2014-31.03.2017
    funded byGerman Science Foundation
    partnersBiodiversity Exploratories (DFG Priority Programm 1374)
    person in chargeJulia Juchheim and Dr. Dominik Seidel
    publicationsSeidel D, Ehbrecht M, Juchheim J, Schall P, Ammer C (2017) Terrestrisches Laserscanning erfasst komplexe Waldstrukturen. Allgemeine Forstzeitschrift/Der Wald 72 (17): 25-28

    Juchheim J, Annighöfer P, Ammer C, Calders K, Raumonen P, Seidel D (2017): How management intensity and neighborhood composition affect the morphology of beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) trees. Trees – Structure and Function 31: 1723-1735. DOI 10.1007/s00468-017-1581-z

    Juchheim J, Ammer C, Schall P, Seidel D (2017) Canopy space filling rather than conventional measures of structural diversity explains productivity of beech stands. Forest Ecology and Management 395: 19-26

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  • Objective (Subject)Evaluation of the forest potential of exotic tree species under climate change in North Rhine-Westfalia, Germany
    ContentThe combination of inventory data and dendrochronological measurements will be used to develop growth models of exotic tree species growing in the arboretum Burgholz and elsewhere in NRW. Apart from yield potentials and economic benefits silvicultural options for these species shall be assessed. Tending methods for exotic tree species are not only needed for the arboretum itself but also countrywide.
    Appropriation period15.07.2013 - 31.05.2016
    funded byLandesbetrieb Wald und Holz NRW, Ministerium für Klimaschutz, Umwelt, Landwirtschaft, Natur- und Verbraucherschutz
    partnersDr. Bertram Leder, State Enterprise for Forestry and Timber North Rhine-Westphalia, Centre of Silviculture and Forest Propagation Consulting, Training and Test Forestry Office Arnsberg, Obereimer 2a, 59821 Arnsberg
    person in chargeNils Hoffmann and Dr. Torsten Vor
    publicationsHoffmann N, Leder B, Vor T (2015) Zuwachsanalyse ostasiatischer Baumarten auf einem nordrheinwestfälischen Standort unter Klimaaspekten. Forstarchiv 86: 123-138, DOI:10.4432/0300-4112-86-123

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  • Objective (Subject)Tree species diversity in Chilean Forests - are naturalness and economics compatible?
    ContentThe overall objective of the project ist to develop economically sound silvicultural alternatives to plantations with exotic tree species. Therefore different mixtures containing native tree species but also pure stands of exotic tree species will be compared. The effect of the different stand types on plant diversity, growth and economic rationality is of special interest.
    Appropriation period01.01.2012 - 31.12.2014
    funded byBauer-Stiftung zur Förderung von Wissenschaft und Forschung
    partnersInstitute of Forest Management, TU München and Facultad de Ciencias Forestales, Universidad de Concepción
    person in chargeDr. Steffi Heinrichs und Carolin Stiehl
    publicationsUhde B, Heinrichs S, Stiehl C R, Ammer C, Müller-Using B, Knoke T (2017) Bringing ecosystem services into forest planning - Can we optimize the composition of Chilean forests based on expert knowledge. Forest Ecology and Management 404: 126-140

    Heinrichs S, Stiehl C, Müller-Using B (2016) Can native plant species be preserved in an anthropogenic forest landscape dominated by aliens? A case study from Mediterranean Chile. Annals of Forest Research: Online First, DOI: 10.15287/afr.2016.498 pdf

    Heinrichs S, Pauchard A (2015) Struggling to maintain native plant diversity in a peri-urban reserve surrounded by a highly anthropogenic matrix. Biodiversity and Conservation 24: 2769-2788. DOI: 10.1007/s10531-015-0964-y

    further publications are in preparation

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  • Objective (Subject)Can thinnings improve the drought tolerance of Norway spruce?
    ContentThe effect of different thinning regimes on transpiration and growth of target trees are studied on an experimental site in Southern Bavaria near Landshut. The experiment includes sapflow measurements and a survey of soil hydrology as well as measurements on above and belowground biomass.
    Appropriation period01.01.2008 - 31.12.2014 und 01.12.14 bis 30.06.18
    funded byBavarian state department for food, agriculture and forestry (phase 1) und Federal Ministry of Food and Agriculture (phase 2)
    partnersChair of plant ecopysiology , TU München and Bavarian Forest Institute (LWF)
    person in chargeTimo Gebhardt
    publicationsGebhardt T, Häberle K-H, Matyssek R, Schulz C, Ammer C (2017) Weniger Trockenstress bei Fichte: regelmäßig kräftig durchforsten. Allgemeine Forstzeitschrift/Der Wald 72 (17): 10-12

    Gebhardt T, Häberle K-H, Matyssek R, Schulz C, Ammer C (2014) The more, the better? Water relations of Norway spruce stands after progressive thinning intensities. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 197: 235-243

    Sohn J, Gebhardt T, Ammer C, Bauhus J, Häberle K-H, Matyssek M, Grams T E E (2013) Mitigation of drought by thinning: short-term and long-term effects on growth and physiological performance of Norway spruce (Picea abies). Forest Ecology and Management 308: 188-197

    Gebhardt T, Grams T, Häberle K-H, Matyssek R, Schulz C, Grimmeisen W, Ammer C (2012) Helfen Durchforstungen bei Trockenheit? Erste Ergebnisse eines Versuchs zur Verbesserung der Wasserversorgung junger Fichtenbestände. LWF aktuell 87: 8-10

    Gebhardt T, Schulz C, Matyssek R, Ammer C (2010) Die Fichte im Zeichen des Klimawandels - Beugen Durchforstungseingriffe Trockenschäden vor? Forstarchiv 81: 86-87

    finalised projects

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  • Objective (Subject)Lin2Value- Options for an improved forest stand management in Southeastern China
    ContentChina is obliged to fulfill its commitments in the international Climate Policy Arena in line with national regulations to reduce the CO2-intensity of its national economy by approx. 40% from 2005 to 2020. One approach to achieve this is the increase of wood and carbon stocks in forests aiming at the reduction of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in land-use. Sustainable Forest Management (SFM), not only increases carbon stocks, but also contributes to increased stand stability, higher timber value and enhanced biodiversity. SFM will also lower the risk that wind, pest and snow damage will contribute to release of stored carbon from forests (non-permanence). However, regulatory policies to enable large-scale implementation of SFM require some certainty over decision making processes given the long-term impacts of decisions in forest management. Hence, an integrated simulation framework is needed to better understand forest growth dynamics and its impact on carbon accumulation, forest carbon footprints (harvested wood products, HWP) and trade-offs and synergies between different management goals. In addition, interactions between different forest management regimes and risks (extreme meteorological events and human induced risks) need to be assessed which are likely to change with stand age, stand structure, species compositions as well as site conditions. The project is lead-managed by the Chair of Forest Inventory and Remote sensing of Göttingen University. Our work package will evaluate how changes of the present forest management systems, for example by converting pure conifer stands into mixed stands, modern thinning regimes or longer rotation periods would change the carbon stock of such forests.
    Appropriation period01.05.2012 - 28.02.2015
    funded byFederal Ministry of Education and Research
    partnersChair of Forest Inventory and remote Sensing, Göttingen University and Chair of Silviculture Freiburg University
    person in chargeDr. Torsten Vor
    publicationsTang X, Fehrmann L, Guan F, Forrester DI, Guisasola R, Pérez-Cruzado C, Vor T, Lu Y, Álvarez-González JG, Kleinn C (2017) A generalized algebraic difference approach allows an improved estimation of aboveground biomass dynamics of Cunninghamia lanceolata and Castanopsis sclerophylla forests. Annals of Forest Science 74: 12. doi:10.1007/s13595-016-0603-0

    Tang X, Perez-Cruzado C, Vor T, Fehrmann L, Alvarez-Gonzalez JG, Kleinn C (2015) Development of stand density management diagrams for Chinese fir plantations. Forestry 89: 36-45, DOI: 10.1093/forestry/cpv024

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  • Objective (Subject)Forest dynamics after bark beetle outbreak in the national park Berchtesgaden
    ContentForest management has been aiming to eliminate natural disturbance dynamics in forest ecosystems over the last centuries. At the same time the changes of structural and microclimatic conditions for example by storms or bark beetle infestations, have been detected as valuable hotspots of forest biodiversity. In the Berchtesgaden National Park winter storms led to subsequent bark beetle calamities on approximately 6,000 ha of forest land in the core zone of the park in 1990 and 2007. No interference by management took place. To assess the impact of the large-scale disturbances on the unmanaged forest ecosystems we investigate how the site conditions are altered by the disturbances, how vegetation and deed wood develops and how these processes influence the diversity and abundance of selected groups of species. The study plots are located in three different types of forests, namely, undisturbed but potentially susceptible spruce stands (reference), stands affected by bark beetles during the last 5 years (new disturbance) and stands being infested in the 1990th (old disturbance). Stand structure, regeneration, vascular plants and arthropods diversity are surveyed.
    Appropriation period01.01.2012 - 31.12.2014
    funded byBavarian State Ministry of the Environment and Consumer Protection
    partnersBerchtesgaden National Park und Bavarian Forest National Park
    person in chargeDr. Maria-Barbara Winter
    publicationsWinter M-B, Bässler C, Bernhardt-Römermann M, Krah F-S, Schaefer H, Seibold S, Müller J (2017) On the structural and species diversity effects of bark beetle disturbance in forests during initial and advanced early-seral stages at different scales. European Journal of Forest Research 136: 357-373. DOI:10.1007/s10342-017-1037-4

    Winter M-B, Baier R, Ammer C (2015) Regeneration dynamics and resilience of unmanaged mountain forests in the Northern Limestone Alps following bark beetle induced spruce dieback. European Journal of Forest Research 134: 949-968

    Winter M-B, Ammer C, Baier R, Donato D C, Seibold S, Müller J (2015) Multi-taxon alpha diversity following bark beetle disturbance: evaluating multi-decade persistence of a diverse early-seral phase. Forest Ecology and Management 338: 32-45. DOI:10.1016/j.foreco.2014.11.019

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  • Objective (Subject)Response of forest stands at the edge of the southern taiga to climate factors, natural and silvicultural disturbances
    ContentTogether with Mongolian partners, experimental plots in forest stands were established. Some of these stands were thinned. In the Selenge Aimag, north of the Mongolian capital Ulaanbaatar, this initiative was initially started within the framework of a UNFAO-project with the Darchan-based branch of the Mongolian University of Life Sciences and then continued with DAAD-funding. The research focuses on the analyzis of climate growth relationships as well as forest structure and thinning analyzes in birch and larch forests and shall lead to future management activities, which may be more sustainable than in the past.
    Appropriation period09.2011-10.2011, 09.2012-09.2013, 01.2015-06.2015
    funded byGerman academic exchange service (DAAD) and IAMONET-RU (Erasmus Mundus)
    partnersMongolian University of Life Sciences in Darkhan, Mongolian Academy of Sciences, Technische Universität Dresden, Buryat State Academy of Agriculture, Saint-Petersburg State Forest Technical University
    person in chargeDr. Alexander Gradel
    publicationsGradel A, Ammer C, Ganbaatar B, Nadaldorj O, Dovdondemberel B, Wagner S (2017) On the effect of thinning on tree growth and stand structure of white birch (Betula platyphylla Sukaczev) and Sibirian larch (Larix sibirica Ledeb.) in Mongolia. Forests 8: 105

    Gradel A, Haensch C, Batsaikhan G, Batdorj D, Ochirragchaa N, Günther B (2017) Response of white birch (Betula platyphylla Sukaczev) to temperature and precipitation in the mountain forest steppe and taiga of northern Mongolia. Dendrochronologia 41: 24-33. DOI:

    Gradel A, Batsaikhan G, Batdorj D, Ochirragchaa N, Kusbach A (2017) Climate growth relationships and pointer year analysis of a Siberian larch (Larix sibirica Ledeb.) chronology from the Mongolian mountain forest-steppe. Forest Ecosystems 4:22 DOI:

    Altaev AA, Gradel A, Antropov VF, Herbst P (2016) Burjatiens Wälder - Schutz für den Baikalsee. Forstzeitung: 10/16: 38-39

    Gradel A, Petrov W N, Bayartaa N, Herbst P (2016) Mongolei: In kleinen Schritten Richtung Marktwirtschaft. Forstzeitung 06/16: 30-31

    Gradel A, Ochirragchaa N, Altaev AA, Voinkov AA, Enkhtuya B (2015) Spatial distribution of trees on light taiga plots before selective thinning. Mongolian Journal of Agricultural Sciences 15: 91-99

    Gradel A, Petrov W (2014) Forstpolitische Entwicklungen im Transformationsland Mongolei. AFZ-Der Wald 17: 36-39.

    Gradel A, Mühlenberg M (2011) Spatial characteristics of near-natural Mongolian forests at the edge of the southern taiga. Allgemeine Forst- und Jagdzeitung (German Journal of Forest Research) 182 3/4: 40-52.

    Objective (Subject)Options and restrictions of regenerating oak naturally - recommendations for pratical forestry and nature conservation management
    ContentThis project aims at quantifying the shade tolerance of oak which may vary by site conditions. Also other abiotic and biotic factors which may influence successful oak regeneration will be analysed. The results of the study should support operative decisions. Furthermore it should suggest ways to keep a considerable amount of oak where this species contributes to a high nature conservation value.
    Appropriation period01.03.2011 - 28.02.2014
    funded byBavarian state department for food, agriculture and forestry
    partnersBavarian State forest Company, Bureau of food, agriculture and forestry Uffenheim
    person in chargeDr. Peter Annighöfer and Dr. Torsten Vor
    publicationsAnnighöfer P, Beckschäfer P, Vor T, Ammer C (2015) Regeneration patterns of European oak species (Quercus petraea (Matt.) Liebl., Quercus robur L.) in dependence of environment and neighborhood. PLoS ONE 10(8): e0134935

    Objective (Subject)The effect of forest management and neighborhood diversity on seasonal tree growth responses
    ContentThe purpose of this research is therefore (1) to explain the growth response of selected trees on different time scales (day to year) as a function of their neighborhood (which is strongly related to management intensity); (2) to reveal the impact of neighborhood density and species composition on individual tree growth (measured by self-acting dendrometers) and (3) to explain the revealed growth pattern by using growth related plant traits, especially stabile isotope ratios, nitrogen concentrations and SLA and morphological characteristics such as branch remification. The idea of this proposal therefore is not only to detect different patterns of growth-neighborhood-responses by analyzing tree growth measurements originating from daily to yearly growth data, but also to relate these different growth patterns to different ecophysiological characteristics and strategies.
    Appropriation period01.03.2011 - 28.02.2014
    funded byDeutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (German Science Foundation)
    partnersMax-Planck- Institute for Biogeochemistry Jena
    person in chargeJérôme Metz
    publicationsAnnighöfer P, Metz J, Schall P, Schulze E-D, Ammer C (2017) Buche in Mischbeständen bei Trockenheit weniger gestresst. Allgemeine Forstzeitschrift/Der Wald 72 (17): 13-15

    Metz J, Annighöfer P, Schall P, Zimmermann J, Kahl T, Schulze E-D, Ammer C (2016): Site adapted admixed tree species reduce drought susceptibility of mature European beech. Global Change Biology 22: 903-920. DOI: 10.1111/gcb.13113

    Metz J, Seidel D, Schall P, Scheffer D, Schulze ED, Ammer C (2013) Crown modeling by terrestrial laser scanning as an approach to assess the effect of aboveground intra- and interspecific competition on tree growth. Forest Ecology and Management 310: 275-288. DOI: 10.1016/j.foreco.2013.08.014

    further publications are in preparation

    Objective (Subject)Use potential of coppice, coppice with standards and high forests for energy wood production
    ContentBased on several stands the use potential coppice, coppice with standards and high forests for energy wood production is investigated. The effect of the three silvicultural systems on nutrient cycling will be tested. Furthermore, economic considerations under different scenarios will be part of the evaluation.
    Appropriation period01.09.2010 - 31.03.2014
    funded byFederal Ministry of Education and Research
    partnersForest Ecosystems Research Center
    person in chargeDr. Katja Albert
    publicationsAlbert K, Annighöfer P, Schumacher J, Ammer C (2014) Biomass equations for seven different tree species growing in coppice-with-standards forests in Central Germany. Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research 29: 210-221

    Albert K, Ammer C (2012): Biomasseproduktivität ausgewählter europäischer Mittel- und Niederwaldbestände - Ergebnisse einer vergleichenden Metaanalyse. Allgemeine Forst-und Jagdzeitung 183: 225-237

    Seidel D, Albert K, Fehrmann F, Ammer C (2012) The potential of terrestrial laser scanning for the estimation of understory biomass in coppice-with-standard systems. Biomass and Bioenergy 47: 20-25

    further publications are in preparation

    Objective (Subject)Growth of European beech and Norway spruce seedlings along a light and draught gradient
    ContentEuropean beech and Norway spruce seedlings are selected along a light gradient. Some seedlings are exposed to artificially induced draught. The response of the seedlings in growth and plant traits such as SLA and δ13 C will be investigated
    Appropriation period01.07.2010 - 31.03.2014
    funded byMinistry of Science and Culture of Lower Saxony
    partnersLower Saxony State Forest
    person in chargeChristina Lödige
    publicationsLödige C, Schall P, Ammer C (2014) How do size and resource availability control aboveground biomass allocation of tree seedlings? Forest Research 3: 123. DOI:10.4172/2168-9776.1000123

    Objective (Subject)Use of terrestrial laserscanning for the estimation of wooden biomass in small timber stands
    ContentThe project aims at algorithms for the automated estimation of stem and branch biomass of selected tree and shrub species by terrestrial laserscanning.
    Appropriation period01.09.2010 - 31.12.2013
    funded byFederal Ministry of Education and Research
    partnersForest Ecosystems Research Center
    person in chargeDr. Dominik Seidel

    Seidel D, Ammer C (2014) Efficient measurements of basal area in short rotation forests based on terrestrial laser scanning under special consideration of shadowing. iForest - Biogeosciences and Forestry 7: 226-231

    Seidel D, Albert K, Ammer C, Fehrmann L, Kleinn C (2013) Using terrestrial laser scanning to support biomass estimation in densely stocked young tree plantations. International Journal of Remote Sensing, 34(24): 8699-8709. DOI: 10.1080/01431161.2013.848308

    Seidel D, Albert K, Fehrmann F, Ammer C (2012) The potential of terrestrial laser scanning for the estimation of understory biomass in coppice-with-standard systems. Biomass and Bioenergy 47: 20-25

    Objective (Subject)Ecosystem Services of Natural Forests at Forestry and Climate Policy (FKZ 3511 84 0200) - Impacts of the cessation of material and energetic use of wood in previously managed forests on the carbon balance of the forests and the wood product sector in Germany -
    ContentThe main objective of this project is to quantify the total carbon (C) balance of spatially defined forests after the cessation of material and energetic use of their wood. The model regions are located in Thuringia (Hainich, Hohe Schrecke, Biosphärenreservat Vessertal), and they are representative for most natural (mixed) beech forest sites in Germany. Basing on the resulting total C-balances we will evaluate the relevance of the cessation of wood use for climate change mitigation, and we will identify potential win-win situations and conflicts between biodiversity conservation and the ecosystem services "wood production" and "C-sequestration".
    Appropriation period15.08.2011 - 31.07.2013
    funded byFederal Agency for Nature Conservation (BfN) with funds of the Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety (BMU)
    partnersThuringianforest, Gotha
    person in chargeJan Raacke
    coordinationDr. Martina Mund
    publicationsMund M, Frischbier N, Profft I, Raacke J, Richter F, Ammer C (2015) Klimaschutzwirkung des Wald- und Holzsektors: Schutz- und Nutzungsszenarien für drei Modellregionen in Thüringen. BfN-Skripten 396: 1-168 pdf

    Mund M, Ammer C (2013) Können FFH-Waldgebiete im besonderen Maße zur Erforschung der Ökosystemleistung Kohlenstoffsequestrierung beitragen? In: Lehrke S, Ellwanger G, Buschmann A, Frederking W, Paulsch C, Schröder E, Ssymank A (eds). Natura 2000 im Wald. Lebensraumtypen, Erhaltungszustand, Management. Naturschutz und Biologische Vielfalt Vol. 131. Bundesamt für Naturschutz, Bonn-Bad Godesberg, 157-167

    Objective (Subject)The impact of tree species diversity on tree growth and herb-layer diversity – ecological studies and management implications at the biosphere reserve Valle del Ticino
    ContentThe project focuses on the understanding of the effects of tree species diversity on intertree competition and growth and the diversity of the herb-layer. The role of neophytes within the interplay of overstorey trees and ground vegetation and the seed bank in the soil is of special interest. The experimental area (biosphere reserve Valle del Ticino) is one of the rare riparian forests throughout Europe with an considerable amount of native and non-native tree species. The study focuses on the effects of small scaled stand structure and species composition on tree growth and stand dynamics. The study comprises field surveys, dendrochronological approaches using stem cores and pot experiments under controlled conditions.
    Appropriation period01.01.2010 - 31.05.2013
    funded byMarianne und Dr. Fritz Walter Fischer-Stiftung
    partnersProfessorship for Environment and Applied Botany, Free University of Bozen - Bolzano
    person in chargeDr. Heike Kawaletz and Dr. Peter Annighöfer
    coordinationDr. Inga Mölder
    publicationsAnnighöfer P, Ammer C (2015) Spätblühende Traubenkirsche: Pragmatismus statt Aktionismus. AFZ/Der Wald 4/70: 27-30

    Annighöfer P, Kawaletz H, Terwei A, Mölder I, Zerbe S, Ammer C (2015) Managing an invasive tree species - silvicultural recommendations for black cherry (Prunus serotina Ehrh.). Forstarchiv 86: 139-152, DOI:10.4432/0300-4112-86-139

    Annighöfer P, Mölder I, Zerbe S, Kawaletz H, Terwei A, Ammer C (2012) Biomass functions for the two alien tree species Prunus serotina Ehrh. and Robinia pseudoacacia L. in floodplain forests of Northern Italy. European Journal of Forest Research 131: 1619-1635, DOI: 10.1007/s10342-012-0629-2

    Annighöfer P, Schall P, Kawaletz H, Mölder I, Terwei A, Zerbe S, Ammer C (2012) Vegetative growth response of black cherry (Prunus serotina) to different mechanical control methods in a biosphere reserve. Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 42: (12), 2037 - 2051, DOI: 10.1139/cjfr-2012-0257

    Bourtsoukidis E, Kawaletz H, Radacki D, Schütz S, Hakola H, Hellén H, Noe S, Mölder I, Ammer C, Bonn B (2014) Impact of flooding and drought conditions on the emission of volatile organic compounds of Quercus robur and Prunus serotina. Trees - Structure and Function 28: 193-204. DOI: 10.1007/s00468-013-0942-5

    Kawaletz H, Mölder I, Annighöfer P, Terwei A, Zerbe S, Ammer C (2014a) Back to the roots: how do seedlings of native tree species react to the competition by exotic species? Annals of Forest Science 71: 337-347

    Kawaletz H, Mölder I, Annighöfer P, Terwei A, Zerbe S, Ammer C (2014b) Pot experiments with woody species - a review. Forestry 87: 482-491

    Kawaletz H, Mölder I, Zerbe S, Annighöfer P, Terwei A, Ammer C (2013) Exotic tree seedlings are much more competitive than natives but show underyielding when growing together. Journal of Plant Ecology 6: 305-315. DOI: 10.1093/jpe/rts044

    Skowronek S, Terwei A, Zerbe S, Mölder I, Annighöfer P, Kawaletz H, Ammer C, Heilmeier H (2013) Regeneration Potential of Floodplain Forests Under the Influence of Nonnative Tree Species: Soil Seed Bank Analysis in Northern Italy. Restoration Ecology. DOI: 10.1111/rec.12027

    Terwei A, Zerbe S, Mölder I, Annighöfer P, Kawaletz H, Ammer C (2016) Response of floodplain understorey species to environmental gradients and tree invasion ? A functional trait perspective. Biological Invasions 18: 2951-2973 Terwei A, Zerbe S, Zeileis A, Annighöfer P, Kawaletz H, Mölder I, Ammer C (2013) Which are the factors controlling tree seedling establishment in North Italian floodplain forests invaded by non-native tree species? Forest Ecology and Management 304: 192-203. DOI: 10.1016/j.foreco.2013.05.003

    Objective (Subject)Fascilitation of rare tree species
    ContentThe project suggests how rare tree species could be favored during forest management. Various factors such as ownership, site quality, autecology of the species, control of ungulate density and costs are taken into account.
    Appropriation period01.08.2009 - 31.07.2012
    funded byDeutsche Bundesstiftung Umwelt (DBU)
    partnersDepartment of Forest Zoology and Forest Conservation, Georg-August-Universität Göttingen
    person in chargeDr. Torsten Vor
    publicationsVor T, Heckmann P (2017) Chancen zur Etablierung seltener Baumarten. Allgemeine Forstzeitschrift/Der Wald 72 (17): 16-19

    Ammer C, Vor T (2013) Verlust von Mischbaumarten durch Wildverbiss in Buchenwäldern. Allgemeine Forstzeitschrift/Der Wald 68 (1): 9-11

    Objective (Subject)Interactions between light and soil moisture on growth and biomass partitioning of European beech and Norway spruce seedlings
    ContentIn a greenhouse experiment seedlings of European beech and Norway spruce were exposed to different light (3 levels) and soil moisture (2 levels) over three years. Measurements were carried out to detect growth responses and biomass partitioning in relation to resource availability.
    Appropriation periodFinished (01.01.2006 - 31.12.2008)
    funded byBavarian state department for food, agriculture and forestry and Research Institute of Forest Ecology and Forestry (Rhineland-Palatinate)
    partnersUniversity of applied sciences Weihenstephan-Triesdorf, Institute of horticulture
    person in chargeProf. Dr. Christian Ammer
    publicationsSchall P, Lödige C, Beck M, Ammer C (2012) Biomass allocation to roots and shoots is more sensitive to shade and drought in European beech than in Norway spruce seedlings. Forest Ecology and Management 266: 246-253