Mathes T, Seidel D, Häberle K-H, Pretzsch H, Annighöfer P (2023) What are we missing? Occlusion in laser scanning point clouds and its impact on the detection of single tree morphologies and stand structural variables. Remote Sensing 15, 450, DOI:10.3390/rs15020450

Müller J, Mitesser O, Cadotte M W, van der Plas F, Mori A S, Ammer C, Chao A, Scherer-Lorenzen M, Baldrian P, Bässler C, Biedermann P, Cesarz S, Claßen A, Delory B M, Feldhaar H, Fichtner A, Hothorn T, Kuenzer C, Peters M K, Pierick K, Schmitt T, Schuldt B, Seidel D, Six D, Steffan-Dewenter I, Thorn S, von Oheimb G, Wegmann M, Weisser W W, Eisenhauer, N. (2023) Enhancing the structural diversity between forest patches - A concept and real-world experiment to study biodiversity, multifunctionality and forest resilience across spatial scales. Global Change Biology, 29, 1437-1450. DOI:10.1111/gcb.16564

Neudam L, Fuchs JM, Mjema E, Johannmeier A, Ammer C, Annighöfer P, Paul C, Seidel D (2023). Simulation of silvicultural treatments based on real 3D forest data from mobile laser scanning point clouds. Trees, Forests and People 11: 100372. DOI:10.1016/j.tfp.2023.100372


Annighöfer P, Mund M, Seidel D, Ammer C, Ameztegui A, Balandier P, Bebre I, Coll L, Collet C, Hamm T, Huth F, Schneider H, Kuehne C, Löf M, Petritan AM, Petritan IC, Schall P, Bauhus J (2022) Examination of aboveground attributes to predict belowground biomass of young trees. Forest Ecology and Management 505: 119942. DOI:10.1016/j.foreco.2021.119942

Heidenreich M, Seidel D (2022): Assessing forest vitality using 3D data on tree and forest structure: a case study from the Hainich National Park, Germany. Frontiers in Forests and Global Change-Temporal and Boreal Forests. DOI:10.3389/ffgc.2022.929106

Höwler K, Seidel D, Krenn T, Berthold D, Ehbrecht M, Müller J, Kietz B (2022) Evaluation of Softwood Timber Quality - A Case Study on Two Silvicultural Systems in Central Germany. Forests 13, 1910. DOI:10.3390/f13111910

Müller J, Mitesser O, Cadotte M W, van der Plas F, Mori A S, Ammer C, Chao A, Scherer-Lorenzen M, Baldrian P, Bässler C, Biedermann P, Cesarz S, Claßen A, Delory B M, Feldhaar H, Fichtner A, Hothorn T, Kuenzer C, Peters M K, Pierick K, Seidel D, ... Eisenhauer N (2022) Enhancing the structural diversity between forest patches - A concept and real-world experiment to study biodiversity, multifunctionality and forest resilience across spatial scales. Global Change Biology, 00, 1-14. DOI:10.1111/gcb.16564

Neudam L, Annighöfer P, Seidel D (2022) Exploring the Potential of Mobile Laser Scanning to Quantify Forest Structural Complexity. Frontiers in Remote Sensing. DOI:10.3389/frsen.2022.861337

Soto D P, Salas-Eljatib C, Donoso P J, Hernández-Moreno A, Seidel D, D’Amato AW (2022): Impacts of varying precipitation regimes upon the structure, spatial patterns, and productivity of Nothofagus pumilio-dominated old-growth forests in Patagonia. Forest Ecology and Management 524: 120519 DOI:10.1016/j.foreco.2022.120519

Willim K, Ammer C, Seidel D, Annighöfer P, Schmucker J, Schall P, Ehbrecht M (2022) Short - term dynamics of structural complexity in differently managed and unmanaged European beech forests. Trees, Forests and People 8: 100231 DOI:10.1016/j.tfp.2022.100231


Annighöfer P, Stiers M, Seidel D, Willim K, Neudam L, Ammer C (2021) Über die Quantifizierbarkeit der 100-jährigen Dauerwaldidee. Allgemeine Forstzeitschrift/Der Wald 76 (1): 23-27

Arseniou G, MacFarlane D W, Seidel D (2021) Woody Surface Area Measurements with Terrestrial Laser Scanning Relate to the Anatomical and Structural Complexity of Urban Trees. Remote Sensing 13, 3153. DOI:10.3390/rs13163153

Burkardt K, Ammer C, Seidel D, Vor T (2021) Differences in stem form and bark anomalies of northern red oak trees in forest stands in Canada and Germany. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 51: 1732-1739. DOI:10.1139/cjfr-2020-0497

Burkardt K, Pettenkofer T, Ammer C, Gailing O, Leinemann L, Seidel D, Vor T (2021) Influence of heterozygosity and competition on morphological tree characteristics of Quercus rubra L. - a new single-tree based approach. New Forests 52: 679-695, DOI:10.1007/s11056-020-09814-1

Dorji Y, Schuldt B, Neudam L, Dorji R, Middleby K, Isasa E, Körber K, Ammer C, Annighöfer P, Seidel D (2021) New insights into tree architecture from mobile laser scanning and geometry analysis. Trees- Structure and Function. DOI:10.1007/s00468-021-02124-9

Ehbrecht M, Seidel D, Annighöfer P, Kreft H, Köhler M, Zemp DC, Puettmann K, Nilus R, Babweteera F, Willim K, Stiers M, Soto D, Boehmer HJ, Fisichelli, Burnett M, Juday G, Stephens S, Ammer C (2021) Global patterns and climatic controls of forest structural complexity. Nature Communications: 12:519, DOI:10.1038/s41467-020-20767-z

Höwler K, Vor T, Schall P, Annighöfer P, Seidel D, Ammer C (2021) Distribution of the timber quality attribute ‘knot surface’ in logs of Fagus sylvatica L. from pure and mixed forest stands. European Journal of Forest Research. DOI:10.1007/s10342-021-01378-9

Rebola-Lichtenberg J, Streit J, Schall P, Ammer C, Seidel D (2021) From facilitation to competition: the effect of black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L.) on the growth performance of four poplar hybrids (Populus spp.) in mixed short rotation coppice. New Forests 52: 639-656. DOI:10.1007/s11056-020-09813-2

Seidel D, Annighöfer P, Thielman A, Seifert Q, Thauer J-H, Glatthorn J, Ehbrecht M, Kneib T, Ammer C (2021) Predicting tree species from 3D laser scanning point clouds using deep learning. Frontiers in Plant Science 12: 635440. DOI:10.3389/fpls.2021.635440

Seidel D, Stiers M, Ehbrecht M, Werning M, Annighöfer P (2021) On the structural complexity of central European agroforestry systems- A quantitative assessment using terrestrial laser scanning in single-scan mode. Agroforestry systems 620, DOI:DOI:10.1007/s10457-021-00620-y

Seidel D, Soto DP, Annighöfer PJ, Ehbrecht M, Willim K, Ammer C (2021) Drivers of shrublayer complexity in absence of management. Remote Sensing 13: 1513. DOI:10.3390/rs13081513


Bebre I, Annighöfer P, Ammer C, Seidel D (2020) Growth, morphology, and biomass allocation of recently planted seedlings of seven European tree species along a light gradient. iForest - Biogeosciences and Forestry 13: 261-269. DOI:10.3832/ifor3370-013

Juchhheim J, Ehbrecht M, Schall P, Ammer C, Seidel D (2020) Effect of tree species mixing on stand structural complexity. Forestry 93: 75-83. DOI:10.1093/forestry/cpz046

Rebola‑Lichtenberg J, Streit J, Schall P, Ammer C, Seidel D (2020) From facilitation to competition: the effect of black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L.) on the growth performance of four poplar‑hybrids (Populus spp.) in mixed short rotation coppice. New Forests, DOI:10.1007/s11056-020-09813-2

Seidel D, Annighöfer P, Ehbrecht M, Magdon P, Wölauer S, Ammer C (2020) Deriving Stand Structural Complexity from Airborne Laser Scanning Data - What Does It Tell Us about a Forest? Remote Sensing 12: 1854. DOI:10.3390/rs12111854

Stiers M, Annighöfer P, Seidel D, Willim K, Neudam L, Ammer C (2020): Quantifying the target state of forest stands managed with the continuous cover approach - revisiting Möller's “Dauerwald” concept after 100 years. Trees, Forests and People (1): 100004. DOI:10.1016/j.tfp.2020.100004

Willim K, Stiers M, Annighöfer P, Ehbrecht M, Ammer C, Seidel D (2020) Spatial Patterns of Structural Complexity in Differently Managed and Unmanaged Beech-Dominated Forests in Central Europe. Remote Sensing 12: 1907.


Annighöfer P, Seidel D, Ammer C, Stephens S L, York R A (2019) Silvicultural implications from analyzing light induced height growth development of eight North American juvenile tree species in mixed-conifer forests. Forestry 92: 616-626. DOI: 10.1093/forestry/cpz038

Annighöfer P, Seidel D, Mölder A, Ammer C (2019) Advanced aboveground spatial analysis as proxy for the competitive environment affecting sapling development. Frontiers in Plant Science 10 (690): 1-12. DOI: 10.3389/fpls.2019.00690

Awad A, Majcherczyk A, Schall P, Schröter K, Schöning I, Schrumpf M, Ehbrecht M, Boch S, Kahl T, Bauhus J, Seidel D, Ammer C, Fischer M, Kües U, Pena R (2019) Ectomycorrhizal and saprotrophic soil fungal biomass are driven by different factors and vary among broadleaf and coniferous temperate forests. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 131: 9-18. DOI:10.1016/j.soilbio.2018.12.014

Burkardt K, Annighöfer P, Seidel D, Ammer C, Vor T (2019) Intraspecific Competition Affects Crown and Stem Characteristics of Non-Native Quercus rubra L. Stands in Germany. Forests 10(846): 1-15. DOI:10.3390/f10100846

Dorji Y, Annighöfer P, Ammer C, Seidel D (2019): Response of beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) trees to competition- new insights from using fractal analysis. Remote Sensing 11 (22): 2656. DOI:10.3390/rs11222656

Ehbrecht M, Schall P, Ammer C, Seidel D (2019) Effects of structural heterogeneity on the diurnal temperature range in temperate forest ecosystems. Forest Ecology and Management 432: 860-867, DOI:10.1016/j.foreco.2018.10.008

Fehrmann L, Kukunda CB, Nölke N, Schnell S, Seidel D, Magnussen S, Kleinn C (2019) A unified framework for land cover monitoring based on a discrete global sampling grid (GSG). Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 191:46. DOI:10.1007/s10661-018-7152-y

Höwler K, Vor T, Seidel D, Annighöfer P, Ammer C (2019) Analyzing effects of intra- and interspecific competition on timber quality attributes of Fagus sylvatica L. - from quality assessments on standing trees to sawn boards. European Journal of Forest Research 327-343. DOI:10.1007/s10342-019-01173-7

Röll A, Niu F, Meijide A, Ehbrecht M, Guillaume T, Gunawan D, Hardanto A, Hendrayanto, Kreft H, Kuzyakow Y, Nomura M, Polle A, Rembold K, Sahner J, Seidel D, Knohl A, Hölscher D (2019): Transpiration on the rebound in lowland Sumatra. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 274: 160-171. DOI:10.1016/j.agrformet.2019.04.017

Seidel D, Annighöfer P, Stiers M, Zemp C D, Burkardt K, Ehbrecht M, Willim K, Kreft H, Hölscher D, Ammer C (2019): How a measure of structural complexity relates to architectural benefit-to-cost ratio, light availability and growth of trees. Ecology and Evolution 00:1-9. DOI: 10.1002/ece3.5281

Seidel D, Ehbrecht M, Annighöfer P, Ammer C (2019) From tree to stand-level structural complexity - Which properties make a forest stand complex? Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 278: 107699. DOI: 10.1016/j.agrformet.2019.107699

Seidel D, Ehbrecht M, Dorji Y, Jambay J, Ammer C, Annighöfer P (2019): Identifying architectural characteristics that determine tree structural complexity. Trees – Structure and Function 33: 911-919. DOI:10.1007/s00468-019-01827-4

Stiers M, Willim K, Seidel D, Ammer C, Kabal M, Stillhard J, Annighöfer P (2019) Analyzing spatial distribution patterns of European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) regeneration in dependence of canopy openings. Forests 10: 637. DOI:10.3390/f10080637

Willim K, Stiers M, Annighöfer P, Ehbrecht M, Kabal M, Ammer C, Seidel D (2019): Assessing understory complexity in beech-dominated forests (Fagus sylvatica L.) in Central Europe- from managed to primary forests. Sensors 19 (7): 1684. DOI:10.3390/s19071684


Ammer C, Fichtner A, Fischer A, Gossner M M, Meyer P, Seidl R, Thomas F M, Annighöfer P, Kreyling J, Ohse B, Berger U, Feldmann E, Häberle K-H, Heer K, Heinrichs S, Huth F, Krämer-Klement K, Mölder A, Müller J, Mund M, Opgenoorth L, Schall P, Scherer-Lorenzen M, Seidel D, Vogt J, Wagner S (2018) Key ecological research questions for Central European forests. Basic and Applied Ecology 32: 3-25

Hoffmann N, Seidel D, Ammer C, Leder B, Vor T (2018) Quantifizierung der Zuwachsreaktion fremdländischer Baumarten auf Konkurrenz und Freistellungsmaßnahmen. Allgemeine Forst- und Jagdzeitung 189: 57-87 DOI:10.23765/afjz0002021

Seidel D, Annighöfer P, Ehbrecht M, Ammer C, Schall P (2018) Applying fractal analysis to stem distribution maps. Ecological Indicators 93: 243-246. DOI: 10.1016/j.ecolind.2018.05.016

Seidel D, Hähn N, Annighöfer P, Benten A, Vor T, Ammer C (2018) Assessment of roe deer (Capreolus capreolus L.) - vehicle accident hotspots with respect to the location of "trees outside forest" along roadsides. Applied Geography 93 (2018): 76-80. doi: 10.1016/j.apgeog.2018.02.015

Stiers M, Willim K, Seidel D, Ehbrecht M, Kabal M, Ammer C, Annighöfer P (2018) A quantitative comparison of the structural complexity of managed, lately unmanaged and primary European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) forests. Forest Ecology and Management 430: 357-365. DOI: 10.1016/j.foreco.2018.08.039


Ehbrecht M, Schall P, Ammer C, Seidel D (2017) Quantifying stand structural complexity and its relationship with forest management, tree species diversity and microclimate. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 242: 1-9

Höwler, K, Annighöfer P, Ammer C, Seidel D (2017) Competition improves quality-related external stem characteristics of Fagus sylvatica L. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 47: 1603-1613

Juchheim J, Ammer C, Schall P, Seidel D (2017) Canopy space filling rather than conventional measures of structural diversity explains productivity of beech stands. Forest Ecology and Management 395: 19-26

Juchheim J, Annighöfer P, Ammer C, Calders K, Raumonen P, Seidel D (2017): How management intensity and neighborhood composition affect the morphology of beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) trees. Trees – Structure and Function 31: 1723-1735. DOI 10.1007/s00468-017-1581-z

Seidel D (2017): A holistic approach to determine tree structural complexity based on laser scanning data and fractal analysis. Ecology and Evolution 8 (1): 128–134

Seidel D, Ehbrecht M, Juchheim J, Schall P, Ammer C (2017): Terrestrisches Laserscanning erfasst komplexe Waldstrukturen. AFZ der Wald 17/2017 p. 25-28


Ehbrecht M, Schall P, Juchheim J, Ammer C, Seidel D (2016) Effective number of layers: a new measure for quantifying vertical stand structure based on terrestrial LiDAR. Forest Ecology and Management 380: 212-223

Seidel D, Ehbrecht M, Puettmann K (2016) Assessing different components of three-dimensional forest structure with single-scan terrestrial laser scanning: a case study. Forest Ecology and Management 381: 196-208

Seidel D, Ruzicka K, Puettmann K (2016) Canopy gaps affect the shape of Douglas- fir crowns in the western Cascades, Oregon. Forest Ecology and Management 363: 31-38


Seidel D, Ammer C, Puettmann K (2015): Describing forest canopy gaps efficiently and objectively: New prospects through the use of terrestrial laser scanning. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 213: 23-32

Seidel D, Ammer C (2015): Supporting the use of woody energy crops through efficient stand assessment via terrestrial laser scanning. In: Butler-Manning D, Bemmann A, Bredemeier M, Lamerdorf N, Ammer C (2015): Bioenergy from Dendromass for the Sustainable Development of Rural Areas. (Eds.). 1. Edition, Wiley-VCH, Weinheim. Germany. 576p. ISBN: 978-3-527-33764-4

Seidel D, Schall P, Gille M, Ammer C (2015): Physical dimensions of Fagus sylvatica crowns and their relationship to tree growth. iForest- Biogeoscience and Forestry. DOI: 10.3832/ifor1566-008

Hajek P, Seidel D, Leuschner C (2015): Mechanical abrasion, and not competition for light, is the dominant canopy interaction in a temperate mixed forest. Forest Ecology and Management 348: 108-116

Seidel D, Busch G, Krause B, Bade C, Fessel C, Kleinn C (2015): Quantification of production potentials from woody biomass outside forests- a case study from Central Germany. Bioenergy Research doi: 10.1007/s12155-015-9596-z

Seidel D, Hoffmann N, Ehbrecht M, Juchheim J, Ammer C (2015). How neighborhood affects tree diameter increment- new insights from terrestrial laser scanning and some methodical considerations. Forest Ecology and Management 336: 119-128

Nölke N, Fehrmann L, Surati Jaya I N, Tiryana T, Seidel D, Kleinn C (2015): On geometry and allometry of big buttress trees - a challenge for forest monitoring: new insights from 3D modeling with terrestrial laser scanning. iForest- Biogeoscience and Forestry doi: 10.3832/ifor1449-007


Fehrmann L, Seidel D, Krause B, Kleinn C (2014): Sampling for landscape elements - A case study from Lower Saxony, Germany. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 168 (3): 1421-1430.

Seidel D, Ammer C (2014): Efficient measurements of basal area in short rotation forests based on terrestrial laser scanning under special consideration of shadowing. iForest- Biogeoscience and Forestry 7, 227-232. DOI: 10.3832/ifor1084-007


Beckschäfer P, Seidel D, Kleinn C, Xu J (2013): On the exposure of hemispherical photographs. iForest- Biogeoscience and Forestry 6: 228-237; DOI: 10.3832/ifor0957-006.

Müller-Haubold H, Hertel D, Seidel D, Knutzen F, Leuschner C (2013): Climate responses of aboveground productivity and allocation in Fagus sylvatica: a transect study in mature forests. Ecosystems. DOI: 10.1007/s10021-013-9698-4.

Metz J, Seidel D Scheffer D, Schulze E-D, Ammer C (2013): Crown modeling by terrestrial laser scanning as an approach to assess the effect of aboveground intra- and interspecific competition on tree growth. Forest Ecology and Management 310: 275-288. DOI: 10.1016/j.foreco.2013.08.014

Seidel D, Leuschner C, Scherber C, Beyer F, Wommelsdorf T, Cashman MJ, Fehrmann L (2013): The relationship between tree species richness, canopy space exploration and productivity in a temperate broad-leaf mixed forest. Forest Ecology and Management 310: 366-374.

Seidel D, Albert K, Ammer C, Fehrmann L, Kleinn C (2013): Using terrestrial laser scanning to support biomass estimation in densely stocked young tree plantations. International Journal of Remote Sensing 34 (24): 8699-8709.


Seidel D, Leuschner C, Fleck S (2012): Analyzing forest canopies with ground-based laser scanning: a comparison with hemispherical photography. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology, 154-155, Pages 1-8; DOI: 10.1016/j.agrformet.2011.10.006.

Seidel D, Albert K, Fehrmann L, Ammer C (2012): The potential of terrestrial laser scanning for the estimation of understory biomass in coppice-with-standard systems. Biomass and Bioenergy; Volume 47, Pages 20-25; DOI: 10.1016/j.biombioe.2012.10.009.


Seidel D, Fleck S, Leuschner C, Hammett T (2011): Review of ground based methods to measure the distribution of biomass in forest canopies. Annals of Forest Science: Volume 68, Issue 2, Pages 225-244; DOI 10.1007/s13595-011-0040-z.

Seidel D, Leuschner C, Müller A, Krause B (2011): Crown plasticity in mixed forests - quantifying asymmetry as a measure of competition using terrestrial laser scanning. Forest Ecology and Management Volume 261, Issue 11, Pages 2123-2132; DOI: 10.1016/j.foreco.2011.03.008.

Vockenhuber E, Scherber C, Langenbruch C, Meißner M, Seidel D, Tscharntke T (2011): Tree diversity and environmental context predict herb species richness cover in Germany´s largest connected deciduous forest. Perspectives in Plant ecology, Evolution and Systematics Volume 13, Issue 2, Pages 111-119; DOI: 10.1016/j.ppees.2011.02.004.

Clough Y, Barkmann J, Juhrbandt J, Kessler M, Wanger TC, Anshary A, Buchori D, Cicuzza D, Darras K, Putra DD, Erasmi S, Pitopang R, Schmidt C, Schulze C-H, Seidel D, Dewenter IS, Stenchly K, Vidal S, Weist M, Wielgoss AC, Tscharntke T (2011): Combining high biodiversity with high yields in tropical agroforests. PNAS Volume 108, Issue 20, 8311-8316; DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1016799108.

Seidel D, Beyer F, Hertel D, Fleck S, Leuschner C (2011): 3D-laser scanning: a non-destructive method for studying above- ground biomass and growth of juvenile trees. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology; Volume 151, Issue 10, Pages 1305-1311; DOI: 10.1016/j.agrformet.2011.05.013.


Seidel D, Beyer F, Hertel D, Fleck S, Leuschner C (2010): 3D- Laserscanning-Ein nicht-destruktives Verfahren zur oberirdischen Biomassenanalyse, S.156. In: Forstwissenschaften: Grundlage nachhaltiger Waldbewirtschaftung. Forstwissenschaftliche Tagung, September 22-24, 2010- Göttingen. Cuvillier Verlag Göttingen. ISBN: 978-3-86955-482-2.


Seidel D, Fleck S, Leuschner C (2009): Simulation of hemispherical photographs in the canopy of tree diversity cluster. In: Silvilaser Conference 2009- Proceedings, October 14-16, 2009- College Station, Texas, USA. ISBN: 978-1-61623-997-8.


Erasmi S, Seidel D (2008): Field based inventory of shadow in cacao agroforest systems: an approach to model the horizontal and vertical structure at the plot level from hemispherical photography. In: Grosse, M., Lorenz, W., Tarigan, S. and Malik, A. (2008): Tropical Rainforests and Agroforests under global change. Proceedings International Symposium, October 5-9, 2008. Bali, Indonesia. ISBN: 978-3-940344-51-9.

Panferov O, Propastin P, Seidel D, Kreilein H, Gravenhorst G (2008): How much shade the shade trees provide? In: Grosse, M., Lorenz, W., Tarigan, S. and Malik, A. (2008): Tropical Rainforests and Agroforests under global change. Proceedings International Symposium, October 5-9, 2008. Bali, Indonesia. ISBN: 978-3-940344-51-9.