Phases 1 and 2 results on cultural landscape transformation, local resource governance regimes, socio-economic rural-urban linkages, and transnationalization processes show that transnational multi-stakeholder sustainability initiatives (i.e. certification schemes) have become important actors in environmental governance with a growing influence on land use strategies in our research region.
Therefore, we will analyse the smallholder farmers attitudes towards more sustainable land use against the background of presently pending rejuvenation of oil palm and rubber plantations: i) we will study if global initiatives of sustainable palm oil and rubber certifications affect local perceptions and discourses on sustainability, production processes, and social organization, ii) we will investigate how impending oil palm and rubber replanting processes influence smallholder livelihoods, and how such processes offer opportunities for more sustainable land use, e.g. agroforestry schemes, and iii) we will identify policies and institutions for a sustainable resource use besides certification schemes on different scales. Thus, knowledge is firstly needed on how producers’ perceptions and adaptations towards multi-stakeholder sustainability initiatives on the micro-scale are influenced by narratives on a global scale and how they differ across the research region.
The analysis focuses on the social and spatial differentiation of globally standardized certification standards and criteria (WP1). Secondly, knowledge is needed on how replanting dynamics of the plantation crops influence smallholders’ perspectives and strategies of rejuvenation. The investigation will show how the replanting process contributes to social and spatial differentiation, and on potentials for a transition from oil palm monoculture to agroforestry schemes (WP2). Thirdly, knowledge is required regarding context-specific recommendations for sustainable land use on local and regional scales. The application of a participatory sustainability assessment of future land use scenarios by local stakeholders and farmers will weigh realistic strategies for more sustainable land use at the local scale (WP3). Indonesia’s social forestry policy, including schemes of customary forest management, will be investigated by an integrated study of our counterparts.
Our project will apply qualitative and quantitative methods: i) extended case studies in 12 villages, qualitative interviews with key informants on different scales, from the household level to government institutions, and multi-stakeholder initiatives, ii) a standardized survey in about 100 households for sustainability assessment of food and agriculture systems (SAFA), and iii) a participatory sustainability assessment of future land use scenarios measured in two stakeholder workshops. The investigations are fully integrated in the central EFForTS design on upscaling (Focus 3) and recom¬mendations for sustainable land use (Focus 4), intensive cooperation with other SPs of A, B, and C is ensured.