The faculty offers a list of professors with their respective research fields.

The mutual fertilisation of mathematics and physics in Göttingen had a desicive influence on the development of quantum mechanics in the 1920s. This interaction is becoming a hall mark of mathematical research in Göttingen once again. Ideas from quantum mechanics have been an important stimulus for research in mathematics. In the Research Training Group 1493, mathematicians and quantum field theorists study important mathematical structures in modern quantum physics and their applications in quantum field theory. The areas of mathematics involved in this include topology (Thomas Schick), noncommutative geometry (Dorothea Bahns, Ralf Meyer) and hyperbolic partial differential equations (Ingo Witt).

Another research focus at the Mathematical Institute are symmetries, especially in the context of topology (Thomas Schick), noncommutative geometry (Ralf Meyer), holomorphic dynamics (Laurent Bartholdi) and higher category theory (Chenchang Zhu).

Analytic number theory was established in Göttingen by Edmund Landau and Carl-Ludwig Siegel. Two appointments in 2009 have once again turned Göttingen into the leading centre in analytic number theory in Germany, with the group of Valentin Blomer, Jörg Brüdern and Samuel Patterson. Preda Mihailescu represents algebraic number theory.