Research since 2007
Objective (Subject) Enhancing the structural diversity between patches for improving multidiversity and multifunctionality in production forests Content Numerous studies have found negative as well as positive effects of forest management on biodiversity, but the processes that could provide a causal explanation for these contradicting results have rarely been studied. For example, the relationship between forest structure, which is altered differently by given interventions, the resulting microclimate and its effect on biodiversity has been investigated insufficiently. This might be explained by the difficulty of quantitatively describing the three-dimensional (3D) structure of a forest stand. In this context, it seems fundamental to move from a two-dimensional to a three-dimensional perspective in the quantification of structures. Only recently has 3D laser scanning opened up the possibility of deriving quantitative, three-dimensional data on forest structure at high resolution. As a holistic descriptor of stand structure, "structural complexity" is particularly promising because all animals live in a three-dimensional physical habitat and physical determinants of microclimate are also directly tied to the 3D structure of vegetation. In this context, it is important to investigate the effects of different forest management practices, as well as interventions to increase heterogeneity between stands, on local microclimate and its effects on biodiversity. In a large forest biodiversity experiment replicated in several beech-dominated production forests throughout Germany, experimental silvicultural interventions were applied with the aim to enhance the forest district-level structural heterogeneity. We focus on the relationship between structural complexity and microclimate as a stepping stone for a mechanistic understanding of the relationship between heterogeneity of forest structure and biodiversity at the landscape scale. Appropriation period 01.04.2022 - 30.03.2026 Funded by Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG) Partners Department of Animal Ecology and tropical biology Uni Würzburg, Chair of Geobotany Uni Freiburg, iDiv, Chair of Forest Botany TU Dresden, Forest Entomology and Protection Uni Freiburg, Institute of Geography and Geology Uni Würzburg, Animal Ecology Uni Bayreuth, Institute of Ecology, Diversity and Evolution Uni Frankfurt, Chair of Biodiversity and Nature Conservation TU Dresden, Institute of Ecology Uni Lüneburg, Bavarian Forest National Park, Chair of Terrestrial Ecology TU München Person in charge Dr. Kerstin Pierick Publications Müller J, Mitesser O, Cadotte M W, van der Plas F, Mori A S, Ammer C, Chao A, Scherer-Lorenzen M, Baldrian P, Bässler C, Biedermann P, Cesarz S, Claßen A, Delory B M, Feldhaar H, Fichtner A, Hothorn T, Kuenzer C, Peters M K, Pierick K, Schmitt T, Schuldt B, Seidel D, Six D, Steffan-Dewenter I, Thorn S, von Oheimb G, Wegmann M, Weisser W W, Eisenhauer, N. (2023) Enhancing the structural diversity between forest patches - A concept and real-world experiment to study biodiversity, multifunctionality and forest resilience across spatial scales. Global Change Biology, 29, 1437-1450. DOI:10.1111/gcb.16564
Objective (Subject) Impacts of forest management and species composition on stand structural complexity in Durango, Mexico Content The promotion of complex forest structures has been set as one of the primary management goals in modern silviculture. Recent studies had shown that structurally complex forests may be characterized by a higher stability and resilience towards abiotic and biotic disturbances.
The structural complexity of forests depends on the heterogeneity of biomass distribution in three-dimensional space and thus on tree individuals' distributional and architectural patterns and components. Better understanding the drivers of stand structural complexity is paramount to comprehend the mechanisms behind species mixing effects on forest ecosystem functioning. However, there is a lack of knowledge regarding how structural complexity is created in a forest by the intermingling of different tree species, their individual structural characteristics and the resulting exploration of canopy space.
Nowadays, the complexity of a single trees and forest stands can be analyzed quantitively and across all three dimensions through the availability of point clouds derived from terrestrial laser scanning (TLS).
This project will provide a holistic approach to assess changes of stand structural complexity along gradients of elevation and forest management intensity in Durango, Mexico, by exploring the main mechanisms driving stand structural complexity in forest areas with different species compositions. Appropriation period 15.03.2022 - 28.08.2025 Funded by KAAD Partners Facultad de Ciencias Forestales y Ambientales, UJED Person in charge Norberto Dominguez-Amaya Koordination Dr. Martin Ehbrecht Publications unavailable so far
Objective (Subject) The role of environmental factors and ecological processes in the regeneration of high value timber trees in an African semi deciduous rain forest Content Insufficient natural regeneration of valuable timber species in many tropical forests is acknowledged as a serious conservation and management issue. However, the regeneration ecology of many species remains poorly understood. Poor natural regeneration threatens biodiversity and the provision of ecosystem services, contributing to deepening poverty and increasing the vulnerability of forests towards conversion to other land uses. Therefore, restoration strategies aimed to improve regeneration are necessary, to enhance ecosystem service provision, increase the timber value of degraded forests, and mitigate climate change. Examples of such efforts include active approaches such as direct seeding, planting seedlings and passive approaches that rely on assisting natural regeneration. All have advantages and disadvantages. Using both natural regeneration and active approaches may be effective and favored. However, all may fail if the processes and factors influencing regeneration are not holistically understood. Thus, successful restoration, driven by successful regeneration, requires a profound understanding of the regeneration processes, identifying and paying attention to environmental prerequisites, limiting factors and interfering processes. Because regeneration problems are species specific and site dependent, the analysis must be done for each species at each site. This project seeks to understand the ecology of timber tree species regeneration in Budongo Forest Reserve, Uganda, a selectively logged forest targeted for restoration. The goal is to gain better knowledge of the factors and processes involved, and use this understanding to determine how best to enhance their regeneration. Appropriation period 01.10.2021 - 30.09.2024 Funded by DAAD Partners Budongo Conservation Field Station Persons in charge John Paul Okimat Coordination Dr. Martin Ehbrecht Publications unavailable so far
Objective (Subject) Transpiration and growth of European beech exposed to intra- and interspecific competition under drought stress (subproject from “Digital Forest”) Content Forests are undergoing drastic and mostly irreversible changes induced by more frequent heat waves and drought events associated with climate change, a major environmental threat. The project “Digital Forest” will develop a near real-time forest monitoring concept for predicting major impacts of climate extremes. It includes measurements on Growth and transpiration which are physiological indicators of tree vitality. In order to deepen the understanding of functional mechanisms behind tree reactions to drought and to examine how this response depends on tree size and competition, we will use high-resolution stem increment sensor (DRS 26) and sap flow sensors (SFM 4) installed on 24 trees of 3 species (Fagus sylvatica, Fraxinus excelsior, and Acer pseudoplatanus), to record long term experimental data., by exploring the interrelations between ecophysiological responses and structural stand properties. Appropriation period 15.03.2021 - 14.03.2024 Funded by Volkswagen Foundation and the Federal State of Lower Saxony Partners University of Leipzig, Department Bioklimatologie and Department Spatial Structures and Digitization of Forests, University of Göttingen, FORUM WISSEN Göttingen Persons in charge Laura Donfack Somenguem Publications Donfack LS, Schall P, Mund M, Knohl A, Ammer C (2022) Effects of competition reduction on intra-annual radial growth of European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) at stem base and crown base. Trees. DOI:10.1007/s00468-022-02360-7
Donfack L S, Röll A, Ellsäßer F, Ehbrecht M, Irawan B, Hölscher D, Knohl A, Kreft H, Siahaan E J, Sundawati L, Stiegler C, Zemp D C (2021) Microclimate and land surface temperature in a biodiversity enriched oil palm plantation. Forest Ecology and Management, 497, 119480. DOI:10.1016/j.foreco.2021.119480
objective (Subject) Diversification of forests with indigenous and non-indigenous trees and against the background of cultural history taking the Spessart (Bavaria) as a case study (DIVERS) content Since the paradigm shift towards near-natural silviculture in the 1990s, a major goal of current forestry is the conversion or restoration of anthropogenic pure coniferous stands towards more diverse and structurally rich mixed forests. The diversification of forests may be a promising strategy to increase their potential adaptation and resilience to the increasing uncertainties of global (climate) change, to support the conservation and promotion of biodiversity and to ensure the provision of diverse ecosystem services. The diversification of tree species is seen as a viable strategy for the future, particularly, if it can be achieved cost-effectively by natural regeneration. Thus, the conversion of pure coniferous stands into mixed forests can be effectively supported by spontaneously regenerating tree species in addition to the artificial introduction of target tree species. The northern High Spessart with its currently still extensive coniferous stands represents a region in which this can be exemplarily investigated. Extensive vegetation surveys from the 1990s provide a valuable basis for identifying vegetation changes and assessing them against the background of natural ecological processes and management measures. In addition, the abiotic and biotic site factors are to be investigated in their influence on the natural regeneration of the Spessart’s target tree species. In addition to the naturally dominant beech, other natural tree species and in particular the culturally and historically important sessile oak and the non-native Douglas fir are to be examined. The following research gaps are addressed by the study: 1) changes in the vegetation and structure of coniferous stands over the past 25 years under the influence of management measures and climate change, 2) potential of silvicultural integration of culturally and historically important tree species such as oak in the conversion of pure coniferous stands, indicated by natural regeneration, 3) invasion potential of Douglas fir in Central European low mountain ranges. appropriation period 01.03.2021 - 31.12.2023 funded by The Bavarian State Institute of Forestry (LWF) by means of Bayerischen Staatsministerium für Ernährung, Landwirtschaft und Forsten (StMELF) partners Free University of Bozen-Bolzano persons in charge Alexander Seliger publications Lange F, Ammer C, Leitinger G, Seliger A, Zerbe S (2022) Is Douglas Fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii [Mirbel] Franco) Invasive in Central Europe? A Case Study from South-West Germany. Frontiers in Forests and Global Change 5: 844580. DOI:10.3389/ffgc.2022.844580
Objective (Subject) Spatial and temporal differentiation of soil water uptake of European beech, Norway spruce and Douglas-fir in pure and mixed stands Content As part of RTG2300 „Enrichment of European beech forests with conifers”, this project continues the previous work on rooting patterns, root growth and water uptake in response to interspecific competition.
Increasingly prolonged drought periods, which are projected for large parts of central Europe, raise the question in which way different species and stand types adjust their water regime to these conditions. In that respect, soil water use by tree roots is playing a vital role. The aim of this project is to investigate species-specific differences in water uptake depth as well as the effects of species mixtures on its patterns. It is assumed that interspecific competition leads to complementary resource use in the form of spatially or temporally differentiated water uptake. By means of stable isotopes (2H, 18O) which can be used to trace water from soil to tree xylem, these processes will be explored and analyzed in connection with site conditions, tree growth and water status. A deeper understanding of mixing effects on root functionality and forest hydrology will facilitate a forest management adjusted to future needs. Appropriation period 01.01.2021-31.12.2023 Funded by Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG) Partners Members of the Research Training Group 2300 Persons in charge Christina Hackmann Coordination Dr. Serena Müller Publications unavailable so far
Objective (Subject) Analysis of the three-dimensional tree structure with the help of laser scanners with the aim of detecting stress-induced changes in the individual tree structure (subproject from Digital Forest) Content Forests are complex systems that are influenced by multiple stress factors, which can have a negative impact on the health of the stand or the individual trees. This issue is becoming more and more important in present times. Therefore, it will be particularly important now and in the future to develop methods that make it possible to detect decline in tree vitality. Apart from physiological indicators, it can be assumed that structural changes in the architecture are also parameters for the vitality assessment of trees.
Structural changes in individual trees and stand structure are often described in practice by visual assessment of the crown in terms of bare patches, and by observation of branch dieback and bark loss. However, the disadvantages are the subjective assessment, limited reproducibility, and the need to involve experts in the process.
As methods for high-resolution measurement of tree and forest structure have improved significantly in recent years, it can be assumed that these techniques, especially laser scanning, will provide further opportunities for observing structural changes as a result of stress factors.
Within a sub-project of the "Digital Forest" project, modern laser scanning techniques will be used to create precise three-dimensional tree models in the leafy state based on monthly measurements in the field. The temporal changes in the crown structure will be studied using a wide variety of analysis methods, including fractal analysis.
In the end, the results of the study will be made available to the public in a virtual reality exhibition at the Forum Wissen Göttingen.
Appropriation period 15.03.2021 - 14.03.2024 Funded by Volkswagen Foundation und das Bundesland Niedersachsen
Partners Universität Leipzig, CBL (Centre of Biodiversity and sustainable Land Use) und FORUM WISSEN Göttingen
Person in charge Marius Heidenreich Publications unavailable so far
Objective (Subject) Architectural traits of trees in response to different neighborhoods and their importance for stand structural characteristics Content The main objective of this subproject is to quantify the effects of tree species mixture on single-tree architectural traits of beech, Norway spruce and Douglas-fir trees (e.g. symmetry, branching pattern, fractal characteristics, crown surface area) and how they determine the overall stand characteristics, such as space occupation or stand structural complexity. The assumption is that mixed neighborhoods will have a greater variability in crown shapes due to the genetically different tree forms of different species. The latter result in more divers spatial niche occupation pattern and greater variability in light availability in the understory, as well as greater variability in competition pressure in mixed stands when compared to pure stands. This will in turn lead to less regular tree architectures and greater variability in tree architectural traits.
Additionally, relationships between tree crown architecture and stem properties and whether they change in different stand types (mixture vs. pure) will be addressed.
Appropriation period 01.01.2021-31.12.2023 Funded by Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG) Partners Members of the Research Training Group 2300 Person in charge Alice Penanhoat Coordination Dr. Serena Müller Publications unavailable so far
Objective (Subject) Knowledge Transfer 2.0 – Making biodiversity research effective for biodiversity conservation Content Das Projekt Wissenstransfer 2.0 ist Teil des DFG- Forschungsverbundes Biodiversitäts-Exploratorien. Ziel der Biodiversitäts-Exploratorien ist es, die komplexen Zusammenhänge zwischen Biodiversität, Ökosystemfunktionen und Bewirtschaftung besser zu verstehen, und die Folgen unterschiedlicher Bewirtschaftungsoptionen für die Biodiversität und die damit verbundenen Ökosystemprozesse aufzuzeigen. Dies kann helfen, Synergien und Konflikte zwischen Ökosystemfunktionen und Bewirtschaftungszielen zu identifizieren und der Praxis dringend benötigte Entscheidungshilfen an die Hand zu geben.
Im Wissenstransferprojekt möchten wir den Austausch von Ergebnissen, Wissen und Erfahrungen zwischen den Biodiversitäts-Exploratorien und der Praxis von Forstwirtschaft und Naturschutz fördern und somit die Forschungsergebnisse der Biodiversitäts-Exploratorien für den Schutz der Biodiversität und die Menschen nutzbar machen. Um dies zu erreichen, möchten wir insbesondere:
• die Forschungsergebnisse der Biodiversitäts-Exploratorien praxisorientiert vermitteln,
• die kontinuierliche und direkte Kommunikation zwischen Wissenschaftler*innen und Praktikern*innen aus Naturschutz, Forst und Jagd unterstützen,
• das Wissen, die Erfahrungen und die offenen Fragen der Praxis in die Forschung der Biodiversitäts-Exploratorien einbinden.
Aufbauend auf den Ergebnissen der vorhergehenden Projektphase (Wissenstransfer 1.0) umfasst das Projekt drei Arbeitspakete:
(1) Transdisziplinäre Forschungsprojekte
(2) Analyse der wichtigsten Triebkräfte für die Biodiversität im Wald
(3) Kontinuierlicher bilateraler Wissenstransfer
Appropriation period 01.04.2020-31.03.2023 Funded by Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG) Partners Landeskompetenzzentrum Forst, Eberswalde; Biosphärenreservat Schorfheide-Chorin; Forstamt Hainich-Werratal; Nationalpark Hainich; Kreisforstamt Reutlingen; Forstamt Leinefelde; Forstamt Heiligenstadt; Forstliches Forschungs- und Kompetenzzentrum Gotha; Stadt Mühlhausen; Biosphärengebiet Schwäbische Alb Persons in charge Dr. Steffi Heinrichs und Dr. Martina Mund Publications Heinrichs S, Schall P, Ammer C, Fischer M, Gossner MM (2020) Annahmen und Ergebnisse zur Biodiversität im Wirtschaftswald - Neues aus der Biodiversitätsforschung. WSL-Berichte 100: 15-29
Schall P, Heinrichs S (2020) Comment on "Forest microclimate dynamics drive plant responses to warming". Science 370. DOI:10.1126/science.abd9920
Schall P, Heinrichs S, Ammer C, Ayasse M, Boch S, Buscot F, Fischer M, Goldmann K, Overmann J, Schulze E-D, Sikorski J, Weisser WW, Wubet T, Gossner MM (2020) Can multi-taxa diversity in European beech forest landscapes be increased by combining different management systems? Journal of Applied Ecology 57: 1363-1375. DOI:10.1111/1365-2664.13635
Objective (Subject) Adaptation strategies of beech forests to changing environmental conditions with different management intensity (NaWi) Content The importance of stand structure is a controversial topic with regard to the productivity of forests and their vulnerability to biotic and abiotic disturbances. Until a few years ago, clear statements on the significance of stand structure for productivity and stability were not possible for methodological reasons, since an appropriate measuring technique for the quantitative description of stand structure was not available. This has changed significantly with the use of modern laser scanning technology. Hence, stand structure (e.g. space-filling, structural complexity) can be determined quantitatively. In a joint research project dealing with the impact of forest management on stand structure und on the ability of forests to adapt to climate change, stand structural properties of 24 stands are derived from the laser scans. We investigate whether they are related to the management intensity or the growth response of the trees. With a mobile laser scanner the above-ground stocks are determined. Appropriation period 01.02.2020 - 31.01.2023 Funded by "Waldklimafonds" by means of Federal Ministry of Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety Persons in charge Liane Neudam Publications fett>Neudam L, Fuchs JM, Mjema E, Johannmeier A, Ammer C, Annighöfer P, Paul C, Seidel D (2023). Simulation of silvicultural treatments based on real 3D forest data from mobile laser scanning point clouds. Trees, Forests and People 11: 100372 DOI:10.1016/j.tfp.2023.100372
Neudam L, Annighöfer P, Seidel D (2022) Exploring the Potential of Mobile Laser Scanning to Quantify Forest Structural Complexity. Frontiers in Remote Sensing. DOI:10.3389/frsen.2022.861337
Annighöfer P, Stiers M, Seidel D, Willim K, Neudam L, Ammer C (2021) Über die Quantifizierbarkeit der 100-jährigen Dauerwaldidee. Allgemeine Forstzeitschrift/Der Wald 76 (1): 23-27
Dorji Y, Schuldt B, Neudam L, Dorji R, Middleby K, Isasa E, Körber K, Ammer C, Annighöfer P, Seidel D (2021): New insights into tree architecture from mobile laser scanning and geometry analysis. Trees- Structure and Function. DOI:10.1007/s00468-021-02124-9
Objective (Subject) Effects of forest management on biodiversity Content The aim of the joint project is to assess the effects of forest management or natural forest dynamics after abandonment on biodiversity in a review. In combination with methodological tests and the processing of existing results and data sets, a conceivable concept for a long-term oriented monitoring system for Germany at the landscape level is to be developed. By this, the effects of forest management on biodiversity may be captured reliably. Appropriation period 01.04.2017 - 31.08.2020 Funded by Agency for renewable resources by means of Federal Ministry of Food and Agriculture Partners Plant Interactions Ecophysiology, University of Konstanz; Chair of Tree physiology, University of Freiburg; Dep. of Soil Science of the temperate Zones and Dep. of Ecology and ecosystem research, University of Göttingen, Northwest-German Forest Research Station, Senkenberg Institute Persons in charge (Laura Zeller parental leave), Agnes Förster Publications Zeller L, Baumann C, Gonin P, Heidrich L, Keye C, Konrad F, Larrieu L, Meyer P, Sennhenn-Reulen H, Müller J, Schall P, Ammer C (2022) Index of biodiversity potential (IBP) versus direct species monitoring in temperate forests. Ecological Indicators 136, 108692. DOI:10.1016/j.ecolind.2022.108692
Hagge J, Schmidt M, Ammer C, Dorow W, Keye C, Pauls S, Roschak C, Schneider A, Meyer P (2021) Zielsetzungen und Anforderungen an ein bundesweites Insektenmonitoring in Wäldern. Naturschutz und Landschaftsplanung 53: 10-13
Objective (Subject) Enriching European beech forests with conifers: impacts on ecosystem functioning Content Enriching native forests in Central Europe and in other parts of the world with non-native tree species such as Douglas-fir carries a high potential for the adaptation of forests to climate change. Introducing exotic tree species outside of their native range creates novel ecosystems whose dynamics, processes and compositions may be different than in native ecosystems. This can have an impact on many goods and services that are provided by forests, such as timber production, climate change mitigation or ground water refilling. Decision makers need a sound understanding of the chances and risks of the promotion of non-native tree species on all parts of the ecosystem. Formation of mixed stands of native and non-native tree species, such as mixtures of European beech and Douglas fir, are of particular interest as they provide an optimal trade-off between different ecosystems goods. The primary goal of this research is to synthesize results from all subprojects of the research training group Enrico regarding ecosystem functioning of pure and mixed stands of European beech, Douglas-fir and Norway spruce. To achieve this, a framework for the interdisciplinary study of forest ecosystem functioning was developed (Glatthorn et al. 2021) that will be used to study impacts of the enrichment of European beech forests with conifers holistically. Appropriation period 01.10.2017 - 31.03.2022 Funded by Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG) Partners Members of the Research Training Group 2300 Persons in charge Dr. Jonas Glatthorn Coordination Dr. Serena Müller Publications Glatthorn J, Annighöfer P, Balkenhol N, Leuschner C, Polle A, Scheu S, Schuldt A, Schuldt B, Ammer C (2021) An interdisciplinary framework to describe and evaluate the functioning of forest ecosystems. Basic and Applied Ecology, 52(4), 1-14. DOI:10.1016/j.baae.2021.02.006
Objective (Subject) Rooting patterns, root growth, and water uptake in response to interspecific competition. Subproject 1 of the Research Training Group 2300 “Enrichment of European beech forests with conifers: impacts of functional traits on
ecosystem functioning” Content The societal demands for ecosystem goods and services are globally increasing. One possibility to meet this challenge is to manage forests in such a way that aspects of wood production and forest conservation are combined. Against this background, mixed forest stands composed of locally occurring native tree species and highly productive tree species growing outside of their native range of distribution are of particular interest. Despite the importance of native-non-native tree species mixtures, their impact on ecosystem functioning has rarely been studied. It is generally assumed that presence, abundance, distribution, and diversity of functional traits are more important for ecosystem functioning than species diversity per se. To specify this assumption the proposed RTG aims at identifying the functional traits and associated mechanisms that control ecosystem functioning in pure and mixed stands of European beech (Fagus sylvatica, a deciduous tree species which would be the dominant tree species in Central Europe under natural conditions) with Norway spruce (Picea abies, a native conifer species mainly cultivated outside its natural range) or Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii, a non-native conifer species, which originates from the Pacific Northwest of North-America). Within the framework of the RTG 2300 subproject 1 investigates fine root distribution water up-take and stem growth in pure and mixed stands. Appropriation period 01.10.2017 - 30.04.2022 Funded by Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG) Partners Members of the Research Training Group 2300 Persons in charge Amani Lwila Coordination Dr. Serena Müller Publications Lwila A, Post-Leon A, Ammer C, Mund M (2023) Site properties, species identity, and species mixture affect fine root production, mortality, and turnover rate in pure and mixed forests of European Beech, Norway spruce, and Douglas-fir. Ecological Indicators 147 DOI:10.1016/j.ecolind.2023.109975
Lwila A, Mund M, Ammer C, Glatthorn J (2021) Site conditions more than species identity drive fine root biomass, morphology and spatial distribution in temperate pure and mixed forests Forest Ecology and Management 499: 119581
Objective (Subject) Resource availability and seedling establishment. Subproject 8 of the Research Training Group 2300 “Enrichment of European beech forests with conifers: impacts of functional traits on ecosystem functioning” Content The societal demands for ecosystem goods and services are globally increasing. One possibility to meet this challenge is to manage forests in such a way that aspects of wood production and forest conservation are combined. Against this background, mixed forest stands composed of locally occurring native tree species and highly productive tree species growing outside of their native range of distribution are of particular interest. Despite the importance of native-non-native tree species mixtures, their impact on ecosystem functioning has rarely been studied. It is generally assumed that presence, abundance, distribution, and diversity of functional traits are more important for ecosystem functioning than species diversity per se. To specify this assumption the proposed RTG aims at identifying the functional traits and associated mechanisms that control ecosystem functioning in pure and mixed stands of European beech (Fagus sylvatica, a deciduous tree species which would be the dominant tree species in Central Europe under natural conditions) with Norway spruce (Picea abies, a native conifer species mainly cultivated outside its natural range) or Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii, a non-native conifer species, which originates from the Pacific Northwest of North-America). Within the framework of the RTG 2300 subproject 8 investigates the resource availability of tree regeneration and its development after direct seeding and planting in pure and mixed stands. Appropriation period 01.10.2017 - 30.04.2022 Funded by Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG) Partners Members of the Research Training Group 2300 Persons in charge Ieva Bebre Coordination Dr. Serena Müller Publications Bebre I, Marques I, Annighöfer P (2022) Biomass allocation and leaf morphology of saplings grown under various conditions of light availability and competition types. Plants 11: 305. DOI:10.3390/plants11030305
Bebre I, Riebl H, Annighöfer P (2021) Seedling growth and biomass production under different light availability levels and competition types. Forests 12: 1376. DOI10.3390/f12101376
Bebre I, Annighöfer P, Ammer C, Seidel D (2020) Growth, morphology, and biomass allocation of recently planted seedlings of seven European tree species along a light gradient. iForest 13: 261-269. DOI:10.3832/ifor3370-013
Objective (Subject) Strategies for the economical use and silvicultural treatment of heavily bark-stripped deciduous stands Content The primary goal of the project is to identify economic and silvicultural options to deal with heavily bark-stripped beech and mixed beech stands of the first and second age classes. The aim is to develop a catalogue of actions which may help the practitioner to decide which measures are possible in order to achieve the best possible economic and silvicultural results. The silvicultural treatment and the economic use of damaged stands, both from a forestry point of view and from the point of view of the woodworking and wood processing industry, are the technical objectives of the present project. The scientific objective is to predict the future development of value and stand stability by analysing short to long-term tree overgrowth reactions. Appropriation period 01.04.2017 - 31.08.2020 Funded by Agency for renewable resources by means of Federal Ministry of Food and Agriculture Persons in charge Maximilian Rößner und Dr. Torsten Vor Publications Unavailable so far
objektive A Knowledge Transfer Project - From fundamental biodiversity research to practical recommendations for a biodiversity-orientated forest management content Since its establishment, the DFG-Biodiversity Exploratories (BE) have created a huge amount of data and results regarding the effects of forest management on biodiversity, and of biodiversity on ecosystem functioning, goods and services. This offers a great potential for knowledge transfer from biodiversity research to forestry and conservation practice, and vice versa. The urgent request by local stakeholders to make the results from the BE available and useable for their daily and practical work underlines the importance of such a transfer. The main objectives of the project are: a)to transfer BE results to scales most relevant for forestry practice and nature conservation, and b)to develop and transfer practice-orientated management options that optimize forest goods and services and biodiversity conservation at real forest landscapes.
term 01.04.2017-31.03.2023 funded by German Science Foundation (DFG) partners Federal Competence Centre Forestry, Eberswalde; Public Forestry Office Hainich-Werratal; Hainich Nationalpark; Public Forestry Office Reutlingen; Public Forestry Office Leinefelde; Public Forestry Office Heiligenstadt; Forest Research and Competence Centre Gotha; City of Mühlhausen persons in charge Dr. Steffi Heinrichs and Dr. Martina Mund publications Heinrichs S, Ammer C, Mund M, Boch S, Budde S, Fischer M, Müller J, Schöning I, Schulze E-D, Schmidt W, Weckesser M, Schall P (2019) Landscape-Scale Mixtures of Tree Species are More Effective than Stand-Scale Mixtures for Biodiversity of Vascular Plants, Bryophytes and Lichens. Forests 10(1):73. DOI:10.3390/f10010073
Schall P, Gossner MM, Heinrichs S, Fischer M, Boch S, Prati D, Jung K, Baumgartner V, Blaser S, Böhm S, Buscot F, Daniel R, Goldmann K, Kaiser K, Kahl T, Lange M, Müller J, Overmann J, Renner SC, Schulze E-D, Sikorski J, Tschapka M, Türke M, Weisser WW, Wemheuer B, Wubet T,
Ammer C, Schall P, Gossner M M, Heinrichs S, Boch S, Prati D, Jung K, Baumgartner V, Blaser S, Böhm S, Buscot F, Daniel R, Goldmann K, Kaiser K, Kahl T, Lange M, Müller J, Overmann J, Renner S C, Schulze E-D, Sikorski J, Tschapka M, Türke M, Weisser W W, Wemheuer B, Wubet T, Fischer M (2017) Waldbewirtschaftung und Biodiversität: Vielfalt ist gefragt. Allgemeine Forstzeitschrift/Der Wald 72 (17): 20-25
Objective (Subject) Ungulate management and biodiversity in managed forests (FKZ 3515 685 B01) Content Over-abundant deer populations may lead to species loss and a resulting destabilization of forest ecosystems. In four pilot regions new strategies are tested to achieve a more balanced situation. More specifically, the effect of different hunting strategies on vegetation and wildlife is studied and economically quantified (for more information see: www.biowildprojekt.de).
Appropriation period 15.09.2015 - 30.08.2021 funded by Federal Agency for Nature Conservation (BfN) with funds of the Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety (BMU) partners Arbeitsgemeinschaft Naturgemäße Waldwirtschaft (Hans von der Goltz) , TU München (Prof. Thomas Knoke), TU Dresden (Prof. Michael Müller) person in charge Dr. Torsten Vor publications Unavailable so far
Objective (Subject) Forest structure. Core project of the Exploratories for large-scale and long-term functional biodiversity research Content The project is one of the core projects of the German Biodiversity Exploratories. The aim is to provide comprehensive sets of data on (i) forest structure, (ii) forest composition, (iii) forest productivity and (iv) forest land use intensity in order to support functional biodiversity research (that is, providing explanatory variables for core projects, contributing projects and synthesis of the Biodiversity Exploratories) and to uncover interdependency between structure, composition, productivity and land use intensity of forests, respectively (that is, analysing effects of forest management and natural development). Data will be sampled using methods of "classical" stand inventory, airborne laser scanning and terrestrial laser scanning. Appropriation period 01.04.2014 - 31.03.2023 funded by German Science Foundation partners Biodiversity Exploratories (DFG Priority Programm 1374) person in charge Dr. Peter Schall and Dr. Martin Ehbrecht publications Menge J, Magdon P, Wöllauer S, Ehbrecht M (2023) Impacts of forest management on stand and landscape-level microclimate heterogeneity of European beech forests. Landscape Ecology. DOI:10.1007/s10980-023-01596-z
Burner RC, Drag L, Stephan JG, Birkemoe T, Wetherbee R, Muller J, Siitonen J, Snäll T, Skarpaas O, Potterf M, Doerfler I, Gossner MM, Schall P, Weisser WW, Sverdrup-Thygeson A (2022) Functional structure of European forest beetle communities is enhanced by rare species. Biological Conservation 267:109491. DOI: 10.1016/j.biocon.2022.109491
Boch S, Saiz H, Allan E, Schall P, Prati D, Schulze E-D, Hessenmöller D, Sparrius LB, Fischer M (2021) Direct and Indirect Effects of Management Intensity and Environmental Factors on the Functional Diversity of Lichens in Central European Forests. Microorganisms 9:463. DOI:10.3390/microorganisms9020463
Burner RC, Stephan JG, Drag L, Birkemoe T, Muller J, Snäll T, Ovaskainen O, Potterf M, Siitonen J, Skarpaas O, Doerfler I, Gossner MM, Schall P, Weisser WW, Sverdrup-Thygeson A (2021) Traits mediate niches and co-occurrences of forest beetles in ways that differ among bioclimatic regions. Journal of Biogeography, 48: 3145-3157. DOI:10.1111/jbi.14272
Burrascano S, Trentanovi G, Paillet Y, Heilmann-Clausen J, Giordani P, Bagella S, Bravo-Oviedo A, Campagnaro T, Campanaro A, Francesco C, Smedt P de, Itziar G-M, Matošević D, Sitzia T, Aszalós R, Brazaitis G, Andrea C, Ettore D, Doerfler I, Hofmeister J, Hošek J, Janssen P, Kepfer Rojas S, Korboulewsky N, Kozák D, Lachat T, Lõhmus A, Lopez R, Mårell A, Matula R, Mikoláš M, Munzi S, Nordén B, Pärtel M, Penner J, Runnel K, Schall P, Svoboda M, Tinya F, Ujházyová M, Vandekerkhove K, Verheyen K, Xystrakis F, Ódor P (2021) Handbook of field sampling for multi-taxon biodiversity studies in European forests. Ecological Indicators 132:108266. DOI:10.1016/j.ecolind.2021.108266
Neff F, Brändle M, Ambarli D, Ammer C, Bauhus J, Boch S, Hölzel N, Klaus VH, Kleinebecker T, Prati D, Schall P, Schäfer D, Schulze E-D, Seibold S, Simons NK, Weisser WW, Pellissier L, Gossner MM (2021) Changes in plant-herbivore network structure and robustness along land-use intensity gradients in grasslands and forests. Science Advances 7:eabf3985. DOI:10.1126/sciadv.abf3985
Schall P, Heinrichs S, Ammer C, Ayasse M, Boch S, Buscot F, Fischer M, Goldmann K, Overmann J, Schulze E-D, Sikorski J, Weisser W, Wubet T, Gossner MM (2021) Among stand heterogeneity is key for biodiversity in managed beech forests but does not question the value of unmanaged forests: Response to Bruun & Heilmann Clausen (2020). Journal of Applied Ecology 58: 1817-1826. DOI:10.1111/1365-2664.13959
Seibold S, Hothorn T, Gossner MM, Simons NK, Blüthgen N, Müller J, Ambarlı D, Ammer C, Bauhus J, Fischer M, Habel JC, Penone C, Schall P, Schulze E-D, Weisser WW (2021) Insights from regional and short-term biodiversity monitoring datasets are valuable: a reply to Daskalova et al. 2021. Insect Conservation and Diversity 14: 144-148. DOI:10.1111/icad.12467
Simons NK, Felipe-Lucia MR, Schall P, Ammer C, Bauhus J, Blüthgen N, Boch S, Buscot F, Fischer M, Goldmann K, Gossner MM, Hänsel F, Jung K, Manning P, Nauss T, Oelmann Y, Pena R, Polle A, Renner SC, Schloter M, Schöning I, Schulze E-D, Solly EF, Sorkau E, Stempfhuber B, Wubet T, Müller J, Seibold S, Weisser WW (2021) National Forest Inventories capture the multifunctionality of managed forests in Germany. Forest Ecosystems 8:5. DOI:10.1186/s40663-021-00280-5
Willems FM, Scheepens JF, Ammer C, Block S, Bucharova A, Schall P, Sehrt M, Bossdorf O (2021) Spring understory herbs flower later in intensively managed forests. Ecological Applications: e02332. https://doi.org/10.1002/eap.2332
Bae S, Heidrich L, Levick SR, Gossner MM, Seibold S, Weisser WW, Magdon P, Serebryanyk A, Bässler C, Schäfer D, Schulze E-D, Doerfler I, Müller J, Jung K, Heurich M, Fischer M, Roth N, Schall P, Boch S, Wöllauer S, Renner SC, Müller J (2020) Dispersal ability, trophic position and body size mediate species turnover processes: Insights from a multi-taxa and multi-scale approach. Diversity and Distributions 1-15. DOI:10.1111/ddi.13204
Felipe-Lucia MR, Soliveres S, Penone C, Fischer M, Ammer C, Boch S, … Schall P, … Allan E (2020). Land-use intensity alters biodiversity - ecosystem function - service networks. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 117(45): 28140-28149, DOI:10.1073/pnas.2016210117
Gan H Y, Schöning I, Schall P, Ammer C, Schrumpf M (2020) Soil organic matter mineralization as driven by nutrient stoichiometry in soils under differently managed forest stands. Frontiers in Forests and Global Change 3: 99. DOI:10.3389/ffgc.2020.00099
Heidrich L, Bae S, Levick S, Seibold S, Weisser W, Krzystek P, Magdon P, Nauss T, Schall P, Serebryanyk A, Wöllauer S, Ammer C, Bässler C, Doerfler I, Fischer M, Gossner M M, Heurich H, Hothorn T, Jung K, Kreft H, Schulze E-D, Simons N, Thorn S, Müller J (2020): Heterogeneity-diversity relationships differ between and within trophic levels in temperate forests. Nature Ecology and Evolution 4: 1204-1212. DOI:10.1038/s41559-020-1245-z
Seibold S, Gossner MM, Simons NK, Blüthgen N, Müller J, Ambarlı D, Ammer C, Bauhus J, Fischer M, Habel JC, Linsenmair KE, Nauss T, Penone C, Prati D, Schall P, Schulze E-D, Vogt J, Wöllauer S, Weisser WW (2019) Arthropod decline in grasslands and forests is associated with landscape-level drivers. Nature 574: 671-674. DOI:10.1038/s41586-019-1684-3
Schäfer D, Prati D, Schall P, Ammer C, Fischer M (2019) Exclusion of large herbivores affects understorey shrub vegetation more than herb vegetation across 147 forest sites in three German regions. PLoS ONE 14(7): e0218741. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0218741
Awad A, Majcherczyk A, Schall P, Schröter K, Schöning I, Schrumpf M, Ehbrecht M, Boch S, Kahl T, Bauhus J, Seidel D, Ammer C, Fischer M, Kües U, Pena R (2019) Ectomycorrhizal and saprotrophic soil fungal biomass are driven by different factors and vary among broadleaf and coniferous temperate forests. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 131: 9-18
Ehbrecht M, Schall P, Ammer C, Seidel D (2019) Effects of structural heterogeneity on the diurnal temperature range in temperate forest ecosystems. Forest Ecology and Management 432: 860-867, DOI:10.1016/j.foreco.2018.10.008
Penone C, Allan E, Soliveres S, Felipe-Lucia MR, Gossner MM, Seibold S, Simons NK, Schall P, van der Plas F, Manning P, Manzanedo RD, Boch S, Prati D, Ammer C, Bauhus J, Buscot F, Ehbrecht M, Goldmann K, Jung K, Müller J, Müller JC, Pena R, Polle A, Renner SC, Ruess L, Schönig I, Schrumpf M, Solly EF, Tschapka M, Weisser WW, Wubet T, Fischer M (2019) Specialisation and diversity of multiple trophic groups are promoted by different forest features. Ecology Letters 22: 170–180
Felipe-Lucia MR, Soliveres S, Penone C, Manning P, van der Plas F, Boch S, Prati D, Ammer C, Schall P, Gossner MM, Bauhus J, Buscot F, Blaser S, Blüthgen N, de Frutos A, Ehbrecht M, Frank K, Goldmann K, Hänsel F, Jung K, Kahl T, Nauss T, Oelmann Y, Pena R, Polle A, Renner S, Schloter M, Schöning I, Schrumpf M, Schulze E-D, Solly E, Sorkau E, Stempfhuber B, Tschapka M, Weisser W, Wubet T, Fischer M, Allan E (2018) Multiple forest attributes underpin the provision of multiple ecosystem services. Nature communications 9: 4839. DOI: 10.1038/s41467-018-07082-4
Greve ME, Hager, J, Weisser WW, Schall P, Gossner MM, Feldhaar H (2018) Effect of forest management on temperate ant communities. Ecosphere, 9(6), e02303. doi: 10.1002/ecs2.2303
Schall P, Gossner MM, Heinrichs S, Fischer M, Boch S, Prati D, Jung K, Baumgartner V, Blaser S, Böhm S, Buscot F, Daniel R, Goldmann K, Kaiser K, Kahl T, Lange M, Müller J, Overmann J, Renner SC, Schulze E-D, Sikorski J, Tschapka M, Türke M, Weisser WW, Wemheuer B, Wubet T, Ammer C (2018) The impact of even-aged and uneven-aged forest management on regional biodiversity of multiple taxa in European beech forests. Journal of Applied Ecology 55: 267-278
Schall P, Schulze E-D, Fischer M, Ayasse M, Ammer C (2018) Relations between forest management, stand structure and productivity across different types of Central European forests. Basic and Applied Ecology 32: 39-52. DOI: 10.1016/j.baae.2018.02.007
Ammer C, Schall P, Gossner M M, Heinrichs S, Boch S, Prati D, Jung K, Baumgartner V, Blaser S, Böhm S, Buscot F, Daniel R, Goldmann K, Kaiser K, Kahl T, Lange M, Müller J, Overmann J, Renner S C, Schulze E-D, Sikorski J, Tschapka M, Türke M, Weisser W W, Wemheuer B, Wubet T, Fischer M (2017) Waldbewirtschaftung und Biodiversität: Vielfalt ist gefragt. Allgemeine Forstzeitschrift/Der Wald 72 (17): 20-25
Ehbrecht M, Schall P, Ammer C, Seidel D (2017) Quantifying stand structural complexity and its relationship with forest management, tree species diversity and microclimate. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 242: 1-9
Liang J, Crowther TC, Picard N, Wiser S, Zhou M, Alberti G, Schulze E-D, McGuire AD, Bozzato F, Pretzsch H, de-Miguel S, Paquette A, Hérault B, Scherer-Lorenzen M, Barrett CB, Glick HB, Hengeveld GM, Nabuurs G-J, Pfautsch S, Viana H, Vibrans AC, Ammer C, Schall P, Verbyla D, Tchebakova N, Fischer M, Watson JV, Chen HYH, Lei X, Schelhaas M-J, Lu H, Gianelle D, Parfenova EI, Salas C, Lee E, Lee B, Kim HS, Bruelheide H, Coomes DA, Piotto D, Sunderland T, Schmid B, Gourlet-Fleury S, Sonké B, Tavani R, Zhu J, Brandl S, Vayreda J, Kitahara F, Searle EB, Neldner VJ, Ngugi MR, Baraloto C, Frizzera L, Balazy R, Oleksyn J, Zawila-Niedzwiecki T, Bouriaud O, Bussotti F, Finér L, Jaroszewicz B, Jucker T, Valladares F, Jagodzinski AM, Peri PL, Gonmadje C, Marthy W, O'Brien T, Martin EH, Marshall AR, Rovero F, Bitariho R, Niklaus PA, Alvarez-Loayza P, Chamuya N, Valencia R, Mortier F, Wortel V, Engone-Obiang NL, Ferreira LV, Odeke DE, Vasquez RM, Lewis SL, Reich PB (2016) Positive biodiversity - productivity relationship predominant in global forests. Science 354: 6309. DOI: 10.1126/science.aaf8957
Ehbrecht M, Schall P, Juchheim J, Ammer C, Seidel D (2016) Effective number of layers: a new measure for quantifying vertical stand structure based on terrestrial LiDAR. Forest Ecology and Management 380: 212-223
Allan E, Bossdorf O, Dormann CF, Prati D, Gossner MM, Tscharntke T, Blüthgen N, Bellach M, Birkhofer K, Boch S, Böhm S, Börschig C, Chatzinotas A, Christ S, Daniel R, Diekötter T, Fischer C, Friedl T, Glaser K, Hallmann C, Hodac L, Hölzel N, Jung K, Klein AM, Klaus VH, Kleinebecker T, Krauss J, Lange M, Morris EK, Müller J, Nacke H, Pasalic E, Rillig MC, Rothenwöhrer C, Schall P, Scherber C, Schulze W, Socher SA, Steckel J, Steffan-Dewenter I, Türke M, Weiner CN, Werner M, Westphal C, Wolters V, Wubet T, Gockel S, Gorke M, Hemp A, Renner SC, Schöning I, Pfeiffer S, König-Ries B, Buscot F, Linsenmair KE, Schulze E-D, Weisser WW, Fischer M (2014) Interannual variation in land-use intensity enhances grassland multidiversity. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 111 (1): 308-313. doi:10.1073/pnas.1312213111
Schall P, Ammer C (2013) How to quantify forest management intensity in Central European Forests. European Journal of Forest Research 132: 379-396. DOI: 10.1007/s10342-013-0681-6
Objective (Subject) Genetic und silvicultural studies on origin, growth and stem quality of red oak (Quercus rubra L.) in Germany (FKZ 22023314) Content The origin of selected red oak stands across Germany shall be identified by DNA markers. In addition, growth and stem quality in relation to neighborhood competition is quantified. Regeneration inventories aim to determine the invasive potential of red oak.
Appropriation period 01.04.2016 - 31.03.2020 Funded by "Agency for renewable resources" by means of Federal Ministry of Food and Agriculture (BMEL) Partners Department of Forest Genetics and Forest Tree Breeding Person in charge Katharina Burkardt, Dr. Tim Pettenkofer Publications Burkardt K, Ammer C, Seidel D, Vor T (2021) Differences in stem form and bark anomalies of northern red oak trees in forest stands in Canada and Germany? Canadian Journal of Forest Research 51: 1732-1739
Burkardt K, Pettenkofer T, Ammer C, Gailing O, Leinemann L, Seidel D, Vor T (2021) Influence of heterozygosity and competition on morphological tree characteristics of Quercus rubra L. - a new single-tree based approach. New Forests 52: 679-695
Burkardt K, Annighöfer P, Seidel D, Ammer C, Vor T (2019) Intraspecific Competition Affects Crown and Stem Characteristics of Non-Native Quercus rubra L. Stands in Germany. Forests 10(846): 1-15. DOI:10.3390/f10100846
Pettenkofer T, Burkardt K, Ammer C, Vor T, Finkeldey R, Müller M, Krutovsky K, Vornam B, Leinemann L, Gailing O (2019) Genetic diversity and differentiation of introduced red oak (Quercus rubra) in Germany in comparison with reference native North American populations. European Journal of Forest Research 138 (2): 275-285. DOI: 10.1007/s10342-019-01167-5
Objective (Subject) Study the regeneration patterns of IUCN’s red-listed species and their dependence of environmental factors in the Cat Ba National Park, Vietnam Content In view of its floristic biodiversity the Cat Ba National Park is one of the most important national parks in Vietnam. It is located on the limestone archipelago in north-eastern Viet Nam and consists of thousands of islands and islets. Cat Ba National Park contains 58 species which are listed in Vietnam’s Red-list, and another 16 species which are listed in IUCN’s Red-list. Against this background, the importance to preserve their habitats is of national and global importance.
Due to distinct characteristics of the limestone terrain and various anthropogenic effects, many of the Red-listed species currently only regenerate poorly. Furthermore, requirements for their successful regeneration have partly not been studied in detail. Therefore, this project focusses on assessing the effect of abiotic and biotic environmental factors on the regeneration of the Red-listed species.
Appropriation period 01.04.2016 – 31.03.2020 Funded by Vietnam Government and Rufford Small Grant Partners Cat Ba National Park Persons in charge Pham van Vien Publications Pham VV, Ammer C, Annighöfer P, Heinrichs S (2022) Tree regeneration characteristics in limestone forests of the Cat Ba National Park, Vietnam. BMC Ecology and Evolution 22: 6. DOI:10.1186/s12862-021-01957-9
Pham VV, Ammer C, Annighöfer P, Heinrichs S (2022) Plant species diversity and composition in limestone forests of the Vietnamese Cat Ba National Park. Nature Conservation 50: 23-64. DOI:10.3897/natureconservation.50.86490
Pham VV, Ammer C, Annighöfer P (2020) The presence of IUCN red list tree species in dependence of site characteristics in the Vietnamese Cat Ba National Park. Diversity 12: 104
Objective (Subject) Using terrestrial laser scanning for a quantitative assessment of forest structure along a gradient of management intensity Content The high structural heterogeneity of primary forests is assumed to positively affect several ecosystem services and function, such as biodiversity, ecosystem resilience or ecosystem adaptability. Therefore, today’s silvicultural practices often try to mimic, or accelerate the formation of old-growth structures in managed forests.
Despite our knowledge on the importance of structures it is still difficult to measure the three-dimensional stand structure in a quantitative manner. For this reason we have little information about the structural differences between primary forests, managed forests and protected forests where management was ceased for several years (e.g. national parks). With the recent advancements in terrestrial laser scanning we now have the means to analyze the relationships between detailed spatial patterns of a forest and ecosystem functions.
In this project we aim at gaining a deeper understanding of forest structure and its modification through management along a gradient of management intensity. We will use 3D point clouds to address scale-issues of structure as well as determine, amongst others, old-growthness, space-filling, and structural complexity.
Appropriation period 01.04.2017 – 31.03.2020 Funded by Dr. Erich-Ritter-Stiftung Partners Laboratory of Forest Sciences, Carpathian Biosphere Reserve, Rakhiv, Ukraine and Swiss Federal Institute for Forest, Snow and Landscape (WSL) Persons in charge Melissa Stiers und Katharina Willim Publications Willim K, Ammer C, Seidel D, Annighöfer P, Schmucker J, Schall P, Ehbrecht M (2022) Short - term dynamics of structural complexity in differently managed and unmanaged European beech forests. Trees, Forests and People 8: 100231 DOI:10.1016/j.tfp.2022.100231
Annighöfer P, Stiers M, Seidel D, Willim K, Neudam L, Ammer C (2021) Über die Quantifizierbarkeit der 100-jährigen Dauerwaldidee. Allgemeine Forstzeitschrift/Der Wald 76 (1): 23-27
Stiers M, Annighöfer P, Seidel D, Willim K, Neudam L, Ammer C (2020): Quantifying the target state of forest stands managed with the continuous cover approach - revisiting Möller's “Dauerwald” concept after 100 years. Trees, Forests and People (1): 100004. DOI:10.1016/j.tfp.2020.100004
Stiers M, Willim K, Seidel D, Ammer C, Kabal M, Stillhard J, Annighöfer P (2019) Analyzing spatial distribution patterns of European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) regeneration in dependence of canopy openings. Forests 10: 637. DOI:10.3390/f10080637
Seidel D, Annighöfer P, Stiers M, Zemp C D, Burkardt K, Ehbrecht M, Willim K, Kreft H, Hölscher D, Ammer C (2019): How a measure of structural complexity relates to architectural benefit-to-cost ratio, light availability and growth of trees. Ecology and Evolution 00:1-9. DOI: 10.1002/ece3.5281
Willim K, Stiers M, Annighöfer P, Ehbrecht M, Kabal M, Ammer C, Seidel D (2019): Assessing understory complexity in beech-dominated forests (Fagus sylvatica L.) in Central Europe- from managed to primary forests. Sensors 19 (7): 1684. DOI:10.3390/s19071684
Stiers M, Willim K, Seidel D, Ehbrecht M, Kabal M, Ammer C, Annighöfer P (2018) A quantitative comparison of the structural complexity of managed, lately unmanaged and primary European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) forests. Forest Ecology and Management 430: 357-365. DOI: 10.1016/j.foreco.2018.08.039
Objective (Subject) Assessment of quality attributes and automated quality grading of standing trees through the use of mobile laser scanning Content Main goal of the study is the development of a method for an objective and assessment of wood quality-related attributes of standing trees including a routine for an automated log-grading based on 3D data from mobile laser scanning. Through the combination of highly efficient mobile laser scanning and routines for an automated grading of the logs the project aims at building the foundation for a operational commercial application in the near future
Appropriation period 01.01.2018 - 31.12.2020 Funded by Landwirtschaftliche Rentenbank Persons in charge Dr. Dominik Seidel Publications Seidel D, Annighöfer P, Thielman A, Seifert Q, Thauer J-H, Glatthorn J, Ehbrecht M, Kneib T, Ammer C (2021): Predicting tree species from 3D laser scanning point clouds using deep learning. Frontiers in Plant Science, DOI: 10.3389/fpls.2021.635440
Burkardt K, Pettenkofer T, Ammer C, Gailing O, Leinemann L, Seidel D, Vor T (2020): Influence of heterozygosity and competition on morphological tree characteristics of Quercus rubra L.: a new single-tree based approach. New Forests52: 679-695, DOI: 10.1007/s11056-020-09814-1
Burkardt K, Annighöfer P, Seidel D, Ammer C, Vor T (2019) Intraspecific Competition Affects Crown and Stem Characteristics of Non-Native Quercus rubra L. Stands in Germany. Forests 10(846): 1-15. DOI:10.3390/f10100846 Dorji Y, Annighöfer P, Ammer C, Seidel D (2019): Response of beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) trees to competition- new insights from using fractal analysis. Remote Sensing 11 (22): 2656. DOI:10.3390/rs11222656. Höwler K, Vor T, Seidel D, Annighöfer P, Ammer C (2019) Analyzing effects of intra- and interspecific competition on timber quality attributes of Fagus sylvatica L. - from quality assessments on standing trees to sawn boards. European Journal of Forest Research 327-343. DOI:10.1007/s10342-019-01173-7
Objective (Subject) Structural complexity of boreal, temperate and tropical primary forests Content Primary forests play a crucial role for biodiversity conservation and the regulation of global carbon and water cycles. The project`s main objective is to identify the natural range and climatic controls of the structural complexity of undisturbed primary forests. Therefore, primary forest structures are studied and assessed along a climatic gradient from boreal, to temperate and tropical forests using terrestrial laser scanning. Based on relationships between climate and forest structure, we aim to model and map the potential structural complexity globally and to estimate its probable responses to climate change. Appropriation period 01.01.2019 - 01.05.2019 Funded by Eva-Mayr-Stihl Foundation Persons in charge Dr. Martin Ehbrecht Publications Ehbrecht M, Seidel D, Annighöfer P, Kreft H, Köhler M, Zemp DC, Puettmann K, Nilus R, Babweteera F, Willim K, Stiers M, Soto D, Boehmer HJ, Fisichelli N, Burnett M, Juday G, Stephens S, Ammer C (2021) Global patterns and climatic controls of forest structural complexity. Nature Communications: 12:519, DOI:10.1038/s41467-020-20767-z
Objective (Subject) Impact of von intra- und interspezific competition on timber quality Content The conversion from pure to mixed forest stands is one objective of forest politics of the German federal and state governments. As part of this conversion the percentage of deciduous trees has already increased by 7% between 2002 and 2012 (BMEL 2014). By now pure and mixed stands have been compared in many aspects. However, not much is known on the effect of fine-grain mixtures on timber quality of hardwoods. Wood quality features, especially branchiness and diameter, can be influenced by silvicultural treatments i.e. competition control. In this project the influence of intra- and interspecific competition on wood quality of European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) will be investigated. For this purpose quality grading is conducted at the standing tree ? via terrestrial laserscanning -, at the lying stem and at the final product. Appropriation period 15.11.2014 - 15.10.2017 funded by Ministry for Science and Culture of Lower Saxony partners working groups of the study programme materials research on wood Persons in charge Kirsten Höwler publications Höwler K, Vor T, Schall P, Annighöfer P, Seidel D, Ammer C (2021) Distribution of the timber quality attribute ‘knot surface’ in logs of Fagus sylvatica L. from pure and mixed forest stands. European Journal of Forest Research 140: 969-981
Höwler K, Vor T, Seidel D, Annighöfer P, Ammer C (2019) Analyzing effects of intra- and interspecific competition on timber quality attributes of Fagus sylvatica L. - from quality assessments on standing trees to sawn boards. European Journal of Forest Research 327-343. DOI:10.1007/s10342-019-01173-7
Höwler, K, Annighöfer P, Ammer C, Seidel D (2017) Competition improves quality-related external stem characteristics of Fagus sylvatica L. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 47: 1603-1613
Objective (Subject) Optimizing forest management towards improved strength properties of softwood construction timber (FutureWood) Content The project`s main objective is to investigate how silvicultural treatments affect the strength properties of construction timber of economically relevant conifer species The project is divided into the following four sub-projects: (1) Effects of silvicultural treatment on strength properties of construction timber of Norway spruce (Picea abies), Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii), Grand fir (Abies grandis), Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis). (2) Optimizing wood utilization under different management intensities in conifer stands, (3) Cost-benefit-analysis of silvicultural treatments to produce construction timber of Norway spruce and Douglas fir, (4) Ecological evaluation of different silvicultural treatments based on 3D forest structure and biodiversity. The subprojects 1-3 are handled by the Faculty of Sustainable Resource Management of the University of Applied Sciences and Art Hildesheim/Holzminden/Göttingen (HAWK) and the Fraunhofer-Institute for Wood Science (WKI). Subproject 4 is handled by the department of Silviculture and Forest Ecology of the temperate zones and aims to investigate relationships between forest management intensity, 3D forest structure and plant diversity Appropriation period 01.01.2019 - 31.12.2021 Funded by Agency of renewable resources (FNR) by means of the Federal Ministry of Food and Agriculture Partners EGGER Holzwerkstoffe Brilon GmbH & Co. KG,
Landesbetrieb Hessen Forst,
Oldershausen HOFOS GmbH,
Ministerium für Landwirtschaft, Umwelt und Verbraucherschutz Mecklenburg-Vorpommern
Persons in charge Dr. Dominik Seidel und Dr. Kirsten Höwler Publications Unavailable so far
Objective (Subject) IMPAC3 - Novel genotypes for mixed cropping allow for IMProved sustainable land use ACross arable land, grassland and woodland Content Mixed cropping systems have the potential to enhance production by improving resource use. A field experiment was established where 8 different Populus-hybrids (focal plant species A) and 3 different Robinia clones (mixture plant species B) were established as monocultures and in varying mixtures. The main target of this subproject is to assess the impact of intra- and interspecific competition on biomass production and resource use. Repeated measurements of root collar diameter, tree height, crown structure and leaf-area-index will be carried out, and trees will be harvested for biomass estimation and the development of allometric functions. Appropriation period 01.02.2015 - 30.09.2020 funded by Federal Ministry of Education and Research partners Department of Forest Botany and Tree Physiology and Department of Forest Genetics and Forest Tree Breeding at the University of Göttingen Persons in charge Jessica Rebola Lichtenberg publications Kuchma O, Rebola-Lichtenberg J, Janz D, Krutovsky KV, Ammer C, Polle A, Gailing O (2022) Response of poplar leaf transcriptome to changed management and environmental conditions in pure and mixed with black locust stands. Forests 13: 147 DOI:doi.org/10.3390/f13020147
Rebola-Lichtenberg J, Schall P, Ammer C (2021) Biomass production in mixed short rotation coppice with poplar-hybrids (Populus spp.) and black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L.). GCB Bioenergy 13: 1924-1938
Rebola-Lichtenberg J, Streit J, Schall P, Ammer C, Seidel D (2021) From facilitation to competition: the effect of black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L.) on the growth performance of four poplar hybrids (Populus spp.) in mixed short rotation coppice. New Forests 52: 639-656, , DOI:10.1007/s11056-020-09813-2
Rebola-Lichtenberg J, Schall P, Annighöfer P, Ammer C, Leinemann L, Polle A, Euring D (2019) Mortality of different Populus genotypes in recently established mixed short rotation coppice with Robinia pseudoacacia L. Forests 10: 410. DOI:10.3390/f10050410
Euring D, Rebola-Lichtenberg J, Ropertz J, Leinemann L, Ammer C, Polle A (2017) Auswirkungen von Mischungen auf Ertrag von KUP. Holz-Zentralblatt 143 (3): 88
Objective (Subject) Evaluation of the forest potential of exotic tree species under climate change in North Rhine-Westfalia, Germany Content The combination of inventory data and dendrochronological measurements will be used to develop growth models of exotic tree species growing in the arboretum Burgholz and elsewhere in NRW. Apart from yield potentials and economic benefits silvicultural options for these species shall be assessed. Tending methods for exotic tree species are not only needed for the arboretum itself but also countrywide. Appropriation period 15.07.2013 - 31.05.2016 funded by Landesbetrieb Wald und Holz NRW, Ministerium für Klimaschutz, Umwelt, Landwirtschaft, Natur- und Verbraucherschutz partners Dr. Bertram Leder, State Enterprise for Forestry and Timber North Rhine-Westphalia, Centre of Silviculture and Forest Propagation Consulting, Training and
Test Forestry Office Arnsberg, Obereimer 2a, 59821 Arnsberg person in charge Dr. Nils Hoffmann and Dr. Torsten Vor publications Hoffmann N, Heinrichs S, Schall P, Vor T (2020) Climatic factors controlling stem growth of alien tree species at a mesic forest site: a multispecies approach. European Journal of Forest Research 139: 915-934, DOI:10.1007/s10342-020-01295-3
Hoffmann N, Seidel D, Ammer C, Leder B,
Hoffmann N, Schall P, Ammer C, Leder B, Vor T (2018) Drought sensitivity and stem growth variation of nine alien and native tree species on a productive forest site in Germany. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 256–257: 431–444. DOI: 10.1016/j.agrformet.2018.03.008
Hoffmann N, Leder B, Vor T (2015) Zuwachsanalyse ostasiatischer Baumarten auf einem nordrheinwestfälischen Standort unter Klimaaspekten. Forstarchiv 86: 123-138, DOI:10.4432/0300-4112-86-123
Objective (Subject) Tree species diversity in Chilean Forests - are naturalness and economics compatible? Content The overall objective of the project ist to develop economically sound silvicultural alternatives to plantations with exotic tree species. Therefore different mixtures containing native tree species but also pure stands of exotic tree species will be compared. The effect of the different stand types on plant diversity, growth and economic rationality is of special interest. Appropriation period 01.01.2012 - 31.12.2014 funded by Bauer-Stiftung zur Förderung von Wissenschaft und Forschung partners Institute of Forest Management, TU München and Facultad de Ciencias Forestales, Universidad de Concepción person in charge Dr. Steffi Heinrichs und Dr. Carolin Stiehl publications Heinrichs S, Pauchard A, Schall P (2018) Native Plant Diversity and Composition Across a Pinus radiata D. Don Plantation Landscape in South-Central Chile - The Impact of Plantation Age, Logging Roads and Alien Species. Forests 9(9), 567
Uhde B, Heinrichs S, Stiehl C R, Ammer C, Müller-Using B, Knoke T (2017) Bringing ecosystem services into forest planning - Can we optimize the composition of Chilean forests based on expert knowledge. Forest Ecology and Management 404: 126-140
Heinrichs S, Stiehl C, Müller-Using B (2016) Can native plant species be preserved in an anthropogenic forest landscape dominated by aliens? A case study from Mediterranean Chile. Annals of Forest Research: Online First, DOI: 10.15287/afr.2016.498 pdf
Heinrichs S, Pauchard A (2015) Struggling to maintain native plant diversity in a peri-urban reserve surrounded by a highly anthropogenic matrix. Biodiversity and Conservation 24: 2769-2788. DOI: 10.1007/s10531-015-0964-y
further publications are in preparation
Objective (Subject) Can thinnings improve the drought tolerance of Norway spruce? Content The effect of different thinning regimes on transpiration and growth of target trees are studied on an experimental site in Southern Bavaria near Landshut. The experiment includes sapflow measurements and a survey of soil hydrology as well as measurements on above and belowground biomass. Appropriation period 01.01.2008 - 31.12.2014 und 01.12.14 bis 30.06.18 funded by Bavarian state department for food, agriculture and forestry (phase 1) und Federal Ministry of Food and Agriculture (phase 2) partners Chair of plant ecopysiology , TU München and Bavarian Forest Institute (LWF) person in charge Dr. Timo Gebhardt publications Gebhardt T, Häberle K-H, Matyssek R, Schulz C, Ammer C (2017) Weniger Trockenstress bei Fichte: regelmäßig kräftig durchforsten. Allgemeine Forstzeitschrift/Der Wald 72 (17): 10-12
Gebhardt T, Häberle K-H, Matyssek R, Schulz C, Ammer C (2014) The more, the better? Water relations of Norway spruce stands after progressive thinning intensities. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 197: 235-243
Sohn J, Gebhardt T, Ammer C, Bauhus J, Häberle K-H, Matyssek M, Grams T E E (2013) Mitigation of drought by thinning: short-term and long-term effects on growth and physiological performance of Norway spruce (Picea abies). Forest Ecology and Management 308: 188-197
Gebhardt T, Grams T, Häberle K-H, Matyssek R, Schulz C, Grimmeisen W, Ammer C (2012) Helfen Durchforstungen bei Trockenheit? Erste Ergebnisse eines Versuchs zur Verbesserung der Wasserversorgung junger Fichtenbestände. LWF aktuell 87: 8-10
Gebhardt T, Schulz C, Matyssek R, Ammer C (2010) Die Fichte im Zeichen des Klimawandels - Beugen Durchforstungseingriffe Trockenschäden vor? Forstarchiv 81: 86-87
Objective (Subject) SHAPE- The impact of forest management intensity and neighborhood diversity on tree crown attributes Content The structure and shape of a tree crowns is related to tree growth and is of special importance for species of various taxa. It is well known that crown dimensions can be controlled by forest management. However, information on how silvicultural interventions and competition by neighboring trees modify the shape of tree crowns and branch ramification structure is scarce. This project uses terrestrial laser scanning to provide such information based on three-dimensional models of trees that grew up in stands that are characterized by different management intensities and species diversity. Furthermore, the unique spatial information will be used to measure and compare three-dimensional space filling in forest stands of varying management intensities and species diversity. Appropriation period 01.04.2014-31.03.2017 funded by German Science Foundation partners Biodiversity Exploratories (DFG Priority Programm 1374) person in charge Julia Juchheim and Dr. Dominik Seidel publications Juchhheim J, Ehbrecht M, Schall P, Ammer C, Seidel D (2020) Effect of tree species mixing on stand structural complexity. Forestry 93: 75-83, DOI:10.1093/forestry/cpz046
Seidel D, Ehbrecht M, Juchheim J, Schall P, Ammer C (2017) Terrestrisches Laserscanning erfasst komplexe Waldstrukturen. Allgemeine Forstzeitschrift/Der Wald 72 (17): 25-28
Juchheim J, Annighöfer P, Ammer C, Calders K, Raumonen P, Seidel D (2017): How management intensity and neighborhood composition affect the morphology of beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) trees. Trees – Structure and Function 31: 1723-1735. DOI 10.1007/s00468-017-1581-z
Juchheim J, Ammer C, Schall P, Seidel D (2017) Canopy space filling rather than conventional measures of structural diversity explains productivity of beech stands. Forest Ecology and Management 395: 19-26
Objective (Subject) Testing the effectiveness of blue, acoustic and multi-colored wildlife warning reflectors to mitigate wildlife-vehicle collisions on roads Content Wildlife-vehicle collisions (WVC) cause a serious threat to both humans and wildlife and an economic loss of more than half a billion - in 2013 only in Germany. To mitigate WVS's, a variety of measures have been developed and implemented. One such measure is wildlife warning reflectors. Their efficacy has been tested in a variety of studies focusing on a potential change in fatalities or on the behavioral response of wildlife towards these reflectors. Despite the different conclusions of these studies, they have been testing white and red wildlife warning reflectors, although other studies have revealed that deer and many other mammals are dichromatic and not sensitive to light longer than 550 nm, while red has a wavelength of 630-790 nm.
Our project evaluates the effectiveness of blue, acoustic and multi-colored wildlife warning reflectors in a BACI approach focusing on both, the change in fatalities as well as the behavioral responses of wildlife towards these reflectors, with an additional inclusion of spatial and temporal parameters. Appropriation period 15.05.2014 - 14.05.2018 funded by The German Insurers (GDV) partners Prof. Dr. Torsten Hothorn, University of Zurich Persons in charge Dr. Anke Benten und Dr. Torsten Vor publications Benten A, Annighöfer P, Vor T (2018) Wildlife Warning Reflectors Potential to Mitigate Wildlife-Vehicle Collisions - A Review on the Evaluation Methods. Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution 6:37. doi: 10.3389/fevo.2018.00037
Benten A, Hothorn T, Vor T, Ammer C (2018) Wildlife warning reflectors do not mitigate wildlife-vehicle collisions on roads. Accident Analysis & Prevention 120: 68-73
Seidel D, Hähn N, Annighöfer P, Benten A, Vor T, Ammer C (2018) Assessment of roe deer (Capreolus capreolus L.) - vehicle accident hotspots with respect to the location of "trees outside forest" along roadsides. Applied Geography 93 (2018): 76-80. doi: 10.1016/j.apgeog.2018.02.015
Objective (Subject) Lin2Value- Options for an improved forest stand management in Southeastern China Content China is obliged to fulfill its commitments in the international Climate Policy Arena in line with national regulations to reduce the CO2-intensity of its national economy by approx. 40% from 2005 to 2020. One approach to achieve this is the increase of wood and carbon stocks in forests aiming at the reduction of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in land-use. Sustainable Forest Management (SFM), not only increases carbon stocks, but also contributes to increased stand stability, higher timber value and enhanced biodiversity. SFM will also lower the risk that wind, pest and snow damage will contribute to release of stored carbon from forests (non-permanence). However, regulatory policies to enable large-scale implementation of SFM require some certainty over decision making processes given the long-term impacts of decisions in forest management. Hence, an integrated simulation framework is needed to better understand forest growth dynamics and its impact on carbon accumulation, forest carbon footprints (harvested wood products, HWP) and trade-offs and synergies between different management goals. In addition, interactions between different forest management regimes and risks (extreme meteorological events and human induced risks) need to be assessed which are likely to change with stand age, stand structure, species compositions as well as site conditions. The project is lead-managed by the Chair of Forest Inventory and Remote sensing of Göttingen University. Our work package will evaluate how changes of the present forest management systems, for example by converting pure conifer stands into mixed stands, modern thinning regimes or longer rotation periods would change the carbon stock of such forests. Appropriation period 01.05.2012 - 28.02.2015 funded by Federal Ministry of Education and Research partners Chair of Forest Inventory and remote Sensing, Göttingen University and Chair of Silviculture Freiburg University person in charge Dr. Torsten Vor publications Vor T, Heinrichs S, Ammer C, Lin N, He Y (2020) Plant species diversity and composition in the understory of Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata) plantations and mixed broadleaved forests in Southeast China. In: Felbermeier B, Stimm B, Seidl R (eds) Waldbau weltweit 2.0. Festschrift anlässlich der Verabschiedung von Prof. Dr. Dr. Reinhard Mosandl. Forstliche Forschungsberichte München Nr. 219, pp. 198-215
Tang X, Fehrmann L, Guan F, Forrester DI, Guisasola R, Pérez-Cruzado C, Vor T, Lu Y, Álvarez-González JG, Kleinn C (2017) A generalized algebraic difference approach allows an improved estimation of aboveground biomass dynamics of Cunninghamia lanceolata and Castanopsis sclerophylla forests. Annals of Forest Science 74: 12. doi:10.1007/s13595-016-0603-0
Tang X, Perez-Cruzado C, Vor T, Fehrmann L, Alvarez-Gonzalez JG, Kleinn C (2015) Development of stand density management diagrams for Chinese fir plantations. Forestry 89: 36-45, DOI: 10.1093/forestry/cpv024
Objective (Subject) Forest dynamics after bark beetle outbreak in the national park Berchtesgaden Content Forest management has been aiming to eliminate natural disturbance dynamics in forest ecosystems over the last centuries. At the same time the changes of structural and microclimatic conditions for example by storms or bark beetle infestations, have been detected as valuable hotspots of forest biodiversity. In the Berchtesgaden National Park winter storms led to subsequent bark beetle calamities on approximately 6,000 ha of forest land in the core zone of the park in 1990 and 2007. No interference by management took place. To assess the impact of the large-scale disturbances on the unmanaged forest ecosystems we investigate how the site conditions are altered by the disturbances, how vegetation and deed wood develops and how these processes influence the diversity and abundance of selected groups of species. The study plots are located in three different types of forests, namely, undisturbed but potentially susceptible spruce stands (reference), stands affected by bark beetles during the last 5 years (new disturbance) and stands being infested in the 1990th (old disturbance). Stand structure, regeneration, vascular plants and arthropods diversity are surveyed. Appropriation period 01.01.2012 - 31.12.2014 funded by Bavarian State Ministry of the Environment and Consumer Protection partners Berchtesgaden National Park und Bavarian Forest National Park person in charge Dr. Maria-Barbara Winter publications Winter M-B, Bässler C, Bernhardt-Römermann M, Krah F-S, Schaefer H, Seibold S, Müller J (2017) On the structural and species diversity effects of bark beetle disturbance in forests during initial and advanced early-seral stages at different scales. European Journal of Forest Research 136: 357-373. DOI:10.1007/s10342-017-1037-4
Winter M-B, Baier R, Ammer C (2015) Regeneration dynamics and resilience of unmanaged mountain forests in the Northern Limestone Alps following bark beetle induced spruce dieback. European Journal of Forest Research 134: 949-968
Winter M-B, Ammer C, Baier R, Donato D C, Seibold S, Müller J (2015) Multi-taxon alpha diversity following bark beetle disturbance: evaluating multi-decade persistence of a diverse early-seral phase. Forest Ecology and Management 338: 32-45. DOI:10.1016/j.foreco.2014.11.019
Objective (Subject) Response of forest stands at the edge of the southern taiga to climate factors, natural and silvicultural disturbances Content Together with Mongolian partners, experimental plots in forest stands were established. Some of these stands were thinned. In the Selenge Aimag, north of the Mongolian capital Ulaanbaatar, this initiative was initially started within the framework of a UNFAO-project with the Darchan-based branch of the Mongolian University of Life Sciences and then continued with DAAD-funding. The research focuses on the analyzis of climate growth relationships as well as forest structure and thinning analyzes in birch and larch forests and shall lead to future management activities, which may be more sustainable than in the past. Appropriation period 09.2011-10.2011, 09.2012-09.2013, 01.2015-06.2015 funded by German academic exchange service (DAAD) and IAMONET-RU (Erasmus Mundus) partners Mongolian University of Life Sciences in Darkhan, Mongolian Academy of Sciences, Technische Universität Dresden, Buryat State Academy of Agriculture, Saint-Petersburg State Forest Technical University person in charge Dr. Alexander Gradel publications Gradel A, Ammer C, Ganbaatar B, Nadaldorj O, Dovdondemberel B, Wagner S (2017) On the effect of thinning on tree growth and stand structure of white birch (Betula platyphylla Sukaczev) and Sibirian larch (Larix sibirica Ledeb.) in Mongolia. Forests 8: 105
Gradel A, Haensch C, Batsaikhan G, Batdorj D, Ochirragchaa N, Günther B (2017) Response of white birch (Betula platyphylla Sukaczev) to temperature and precipitation in the mountain forest steppe and taiga of northern Mongolia. Dendrochronologia 41: 24-33. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.dendro.2016.03.005
Gradel A, Batsaikhan G, Batdorj D, Ochirragchaa N, Kusbach A (2017) Climate growth relationships and pointer year analysis of a Siberian larch (Larix sibirica Ledeb.) chronology from the Mongolian mountain forest-steppe. Forest Ecosystems 4:22 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1186/s40663-017-0110-2
Altaev AA, Gradel A, Antropov VF, Herbst P (2016) Burjatiens Wälder - Schutz für den Baikalsee. Forstzeitung: 10/16: 38-39
Gradel A, Petrov W N, Bayartaa N, Herbst P (2016) Mongolei: In kleinen Schritten Richtung Marktwirtschaft. Forstzeitung 06/16: 30-31
Gradel A, Ochirragchaa N, Altaev AA, Voinkov AA, Enkhtuya B (2015) Spatial distribution of trees on light taiga plots before selective thinning. Mongolian Journal of Agricultural Sciences 15: 91-99
Gradel A, Petrov W (2014) Forstpolitische Entwicklungen im Transformationsland Mongolei. AFZ-Der Wald 17: 36-39.
Gradel A, Mühlenberg M (2011) Spatial characteristics of near-natural Mongolian forests at the edge of the southern taiga. Allgemeine Forst- und Jagdzeitung (German Journal of Forest Research) 182 3/4: 40-52.
Objective (Subject) Options and restrictions of regenerating oak naturally - recommendations for pratical forestry and nature conservation management Content This project aims at quantifying the shade tolerance of oak which may vary by site conditions. Also other abiotic and biotic factors which may influence successful oak regeneration will be analysed. The results of the study should support operative decisions. Furthermore it should suggest ways to keep a considerable amount of oak where this species contributes to a high nature conservation value. Appropriation period 01.03.2011 - 28.02.2014 funded by Bavarian state department for food, agriculture and forestry partners Bavarian State forest Company, Bureau of food, agriculture and forestry Uffenheim person in charge Dr. Peter Annighöfer and Dr. Torsten Vor publications Annighöfer P, Beckschäfer P, Vor T, Ammer C (2015) Regeneration patterns of European oak species (Quercus petraea (Matt.) Liebl., Quercus robur L.) in dependence of environment and neighborhood. PLoS ONE 10(8): e0134935
Objective (Subject) The effect of forest management and neighborhood diversity on seasonal tree growth responses Content The purpose of this research is therefore (1) to explain the growth response of selected trees on different time scales (day to year) as a function of their neighborhood (which is strongly related to management intensity); (2) to reveal the impact of neighborhood density and species composition on individual tree growth (measured by self-acting dendrometers) and (3) to explain the revealed growth pattern by using growth related plant traits, especially stabile isotope ratios, nitrogen concentrations and SLA and morphological characteristics such as branch remification. The idea of this proposal therefore is not only to detect different patterns of growth-neighborhood-responses by analyzing tree growth measurements originating from daily to yearly growth data, but also to relate these different growth patterns to different ecophysiological characteristics and strategies. Appropriation period 01.03.2011 - 28.02.2014 funded by Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (German Science Foundation) partners Max-Planck- Institute for Biogeochemistry Jena person in charge Dr. Jérôme Metz publications Metz J, Annighöfer P, Westekemper K, Schall P, Schulze ED, Ammer C (2020) Less is more: Effects of competition reduction and facilitation on intra annual (basal area) growth of mature European beech. Trees 34: 17-36, DOI:10.1007/s00468-019-01894-7
Annighöfer P, Metz J, Schall P, Schulze E-D, Ammer C (2017) Buche in Mischbeständen bei Trockenheit weniger gestresst. Allgemeine Forstzeitschrift/Der Wald 72 (17): 13-15
Metz J, Annighöfer P, Schall P, Zimmermann J, Kahl T, Schulze E-D, Ammer C (2016): Site adapted admixed tree species reduce drought susceptibility of mature European beech. Global Change Biology 22: 903-920. DOI: 10.1111/gcb.13113
Metz J, Seidel D, Schall P, Scheffer D, Schulze ED, Ammer C (2013) Crown modeling by terrestrial laser scanning as an approach to assess the effect of aboveground intra- and interspecific competition on tree growth. Forest Ecology and Management 310: 275-288. DOI: 10.1016/j.foreco.2013.08.014
further publications are in preparation
Objective (Subject) Use potential of coppice, coppice with standards and high forests for energy wood production Content Based on several stands the use potential coppice, coppice with standards and high forests for energy wood production is investigated. The effect of the three silvicultural systems on nutrient cycling will be tested. Furthermore, economic considerations under different scenarios will be part of the evaluation. Appropriation period 01.09.2010 - 31.03.2014 funded by Federal Ministry of Education and Research partners Forest Ecosystems Research Center person in charge Dr. Katja Albert publications Albert K, Annighöfer P, Schumacher J, Ammer C (2014) Biomass equations for seven different tree species growing in coppice-with-standards forests in Central Germany. Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research 29: 210-221
Albert K, Ammer C (2012): Biomasseproduktivität ausgewählter europäischer Mittel- und Niederwaldbestände - Ergebnisse einer vergleichenden Metaanalyse. Allgemeine Forst-und Jagdzeitung 183: 225-237
Seidel D, Albert K, Fehrmann F, Ammer C (2012) The potential of terrestrial laser scanning for the estimation of understory biomass in coppice-with-standard systems. Biomass and Bioenergy 47: 20-25
further publications are in preparation
Objective (Subject) Growth of European beech and Norway spruce seedlings along a light and draught gradient Content European beech and Norway spruce seedlings are selected along a light gradient. Some seedlings are exposed to artificially induced draught. The response of the seedlings in growth and plant traits such as SLA and δ13 C will be investigated Appropriation period 01.07.2010 - 31.03.2014 funded by Ministry of Science and Culture of Lower Saxony partners Lower Saxony State Forest person in charge Christina Lödige publications Lödige C, Schall P, Ammer C (2014) How do size and resource availability control aboveground biomass allocation of tree seedlings? Forest Research 3: 123. DOI:10.4172/2168-9776.1000123
Objective (Subject) Use of terrestrial laserscanning for the estimation of wooden biomass in small timber stands Content The project aims at algorithms for the automated estimation of stem and branch biomass of selected tree and shrub species by terrestrial laserscanning. Appropriation period 01.09.2010 - 31.12.2013 funded by Federal Ministry of Education and Research partners Forest Ecosystems Research Center person in charge Dr. Dominik Seidel publications
Seidel D, Ammer C (2014) Efficient measurements of basal area in short rotation forests based on terrestrial laser scanning under special consideration of shadowing. iForest - Biogeosciences and Forestry 7: 226-231
Seidel D, Albert K, Ammer C, Fehrmann L, Kleinn C (2013) Using terrestrial laser scanning to support biomass estimation in densely stocked young tree plantations. International Journal of Remote Sensing, 34(24): 8699-8709. DOI: 10.1080/01431161.2013.848308
Seidel D, Albert K, Fehrmann F, Ammer C (2012) The potential of terrestrial laser scanning for the estimation of understory biomass in coppice-with-standard systems. Biomass and Bioenergy 47: 20-25
Objective (Subject) Ecosystem Services of Natural Forests at Forestry and Climate Policy (FKZ 3511 84 0200) - Impacts of the cessation of material and energetic use of wood in previously managed forests on the carbon balance of the forests and the wood product sector in Germany - Content The main objective of this project is to quantify the total carbon (C) balance of spatially defined forests after the cessation of material and energetic use of their wood. The model regions are located in Thuringia (Hainich, Hohe Schrecke, Biosphärenreservat Vessertal), and they are representative for most natural (mixed) beech forest sites in Germany. Basing on the resulting total C-balances we will evaluate the relevance of the cessation of wood use for climate change mitigation, and we will identify potential win-win situations and conflicts between biodiversity conservation and the ecosystem services "wood production" and "C-sequestration". Appropriation period 15.08.2011 - 31.07.2013 funded by Federal Agency for Nature Conservation (BfN) with funds of the Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety (BMU) partners Thuringianforest, Gotha person in charge Jan Raacke coordination Dr. Martina Mund publications Mund M, Frischbier N, Profft I, Raacke J, Richter F, Ammer C (2015) Klimaschutzwirkung des Wald- und Holzsektors: Schutz- und Nutzungsszenarien für drei Modellregionen in Thüringen. BfN-Skripten 396: 1-168 pdf
Mund M, Ammer C (2013) Können FFH-Waldgebiete im besonderen Maße zur Erforschung der Ökosystemleistung Kohlenstoffsequestrierung beitragen? In: Lehrke S, Ellwanger G, Buschmann A, Frederking W, Paulsch C, Schröder E, Ssymank A (eds). Natura 2000 im Wald. Lebensraumtypen, Erhaltungszustand, Management. Naturschutz und Biologische Vielfalt Vol. 131. Bundesamt für Naturschutz, Bonn-Bad Godesberg, 157-167
Objective (Subject) The impact of tree species diversity on tree growth and herb-layer diversity – ecological studies and management implications at the biosphere reserve Valle del Ticino Content The project focuses on the understanding of the effects of tree species diversity on intertree competition and growth and the diversity of the herb-layer. The role of neophytes within the interplay of overstorey trees and ground vegetation and the seed bank in the soil is of special interest. The experimental area (biosphere reserve Valle del Ticino) is one of the rare riparian forests throughout Europe with an considerable amount of native and non-native tree species. The study focuses on the effects of small scaled stand structure and species composition on tree growth and stand dynamics. The study comprises field surveys, dendrochronological approaches using stem cores and pot experiments under controlled conditions. Appropriation period 01.01.2010 - 31.05.2013 funded by Marianne und Dr. Fritz Walter Fischer-Stiftung partners Professorship for Environment and Applied Botany, Free University of Bozen - Bolzano person in charge Dr. Heike Kawaletz and Dr. Peter Annighöfer coordination Dr. Inga Mölder publications Annighöfer P, Ammer C (2015) Spätblühende Traubenkirsche: Pragmatismus statt Aktionismus. AFZ/Der Wald 4/70: 27-30
Annighöfer P, Kawaletz H, Terwei A, Mölder I, Zerbe S, Ammer C (2015) Managing an invasive tree species - silvicultural recommendations for black cherry (Prunus serotina Ehrh.). Forstarchiv 86: 139-152, DOI:10.4432/0300-4112-86-139
Annighöfer P, Mölder I, Zerbe S, Kawaletz H, Terwei A, Ammer C (2012) Biomass functions for the two alien tree species Prunus serotina Ehrh. and Robinia pseudoacacia L. in floodplain forests of Northern Italy. European Journal of Forest Research 131: 1619-1635, DOI: 10.1007/s10342-012-0629-2
Annighöfer P, Schall P, Kawaletz H, Mölder I, Terwei A, Zerbe S, Ammer C (2012) Vegetative growth response of black cherry (Prunus serotina) to different mechanical control methods in a biosphere reserve. Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 42: (12), 2037 - 2051, DOI: 10.1139/cjfr-2012-0257
Bourtsoukidis E, Kawaletz H, Radacki D, Schütz S, Hakola H, Hellén H, Noe S, Mölder I, Ammer C, Bonn B (2014) Impact of flooding and drought conditions on the emission of volatile organic compounds of Quercus robur and Prunus serotina. Trees - Structure and Function 28: 193-204. DOI: 10.1007/s00468-013-0942-5
Kawaletz H, Mölder I, Annighöfer P, Terwei A, Zerbe S, Ammer C (2014a) Back to the roots: how do seedlings of native tree species react to the competition by exotic species? Annals of Forest Science 71: 337-347
Kawaletz H, Mölder I, Annighöfer P, Terwei A, Zerbe S, Ammer C (2014b) Pot experiments with woody species - a review. Forestry 87: 482-491
Kawaletz H, Mölder I, Zerbe S, Annighöfer P, Terwei A, Ammer C (2013) Exotic tree seedlings are much more competitive than natives but show underyielding when growing together. Journal of Plant Ecology 6: 305-315. DOI: 10.1093/jpe/rts044
Skowronek S, Terwei A, Zerbe S, Mölder I, Annighöfer P, Kawaletz H, Ammer C, Heilmeier H (2013) Regeneration Potential of Floodplain Forests Under the Influence of Nonnative Tree Species: Soil Seed Bank Analysis in Northern Italy. Restoration Ecology. DOI: 10.1111/rec.12027
Terwei A, Zerbe S, Mölder I, Annighöfer P, Kawaletz H, Ammer C (2016) Response of floodplain understorey species to environmental gradients and tree invasion ? A functional trait perspective. Biological Invasions 18: 2951-2973 Terwei A, Zerbe S, Zeileis A, Annighöfer P, Kawaletz H, Mölder I, Ammer C (2013) Which are the factors controlling tree seedling establishment in North Italian floodplain forests invaded by non-native tree species? Forest Ecology and Management 304: 192-203. DOI: 10.1016/j.foreco.2013.05.003
Objective (Subject) Fascilitation of rare tree species Content The project suggests how rare tree species could be favored during forest management. Various factors such as ownership, site quality, autecology of the species, control of ungulate density and costs are taken into account. Appropriation period 01.08.2009 - 31.07.2012 funded by Deutsche Bundesstiftung Umwelt (DBU) partners Department of Forest Zoology and Forest Conservation, Georg-August-Universität Göttingen person in charge Dr. Torsten Vor publications Vor T, Heckmann P (2017) Chancen zur Etablierung seltener Baumarten. Allgemeine Forstzeitschrift/Der Wald 72 (17): 16-19
Ammer C, Vor T (2013) Verlust von Mischbaumarten durch Wildverbiss in Buchenwäldern. Allgemeine Forstzeitschrift/Der Wald 68 (1): 9-11
Objective (Subject) Interactions between light and soil moisture on growth and biomass partitioning of European beech and Norway spruce seedlings Content In a greenhouse experiment seedlings of European beech and Norway spruce were exposed to different light (3 levels) and soil moisture (2 levels) over three years. Measurements were carried out to detect growth responses and biomass partitioning in relation to resource availability. Appropriation period Finished (01.01.2006 - 31.12.2008) funded by Bavarian state department for food, agriculture and forestry and Research Institute of Forest Ecology and Forestry (Rhineland-Palatinate) partners University of applied sciences Weihenstephan-Triesdorf, Institute of horticulture person in charge Prof. Dr. Christian Ammer publications Schall P, Lödige C, Beck M, Ammer C (2012) Biomass allocation to roots and shoots is more sensitive to shade and drought in European beech than in Norway spruce seedlings. Forest Ecology and Management 266: 246-253