Research since 2007

current projects



Objective (Subject)The role of environmental factors and ecological processes in the regeneration of high value timber trees in an African semi deciduous rain forest
ContentInsufficient natural regeneration of valuable timber species in many tropical forests is acknowledged as a serious conservation and management issue. However, the regeneration ecology of many species remains poorly understood. Poor natural regeneration threatens biodiversity and the provision of ecosystem services, contributing to deepening poverty and increasing the vulnerability of forests towards conversion to other land uses. Therefore, restoration strategies aimed to improve regeneration are necessary, to enhance ecosystem service provision, increase the timber value of degraded forests, and mitigate climate change. Examples of such efforts include active approaches such as direct seeding, planting seedlings and passive approaches that rely on assisting natural regeneration. All have advantages and disadvantages. Using both natural regeneration and active approaches may be effective and favored. However, all may fail if the processes and factors influencing regeneration are not holistically understood. Thus, successful restoration, driven by successful regeneration, requires a profound understanding of the regeneration processes, identifying and paying attention to environmental prerequisites, limiting factors and interfering processes. Because regeneration problems are species specific and site dependent, the analysis must be done for each species at each site. This project seeks to understand the ecology of timber tree species regeneration in Budongo Forest Reserve, Uganda, a selectively logged forest targeted for restoration. The goal is to gain better knowledge of the factors and processes involved, and use this understanding to determine how best to enhance their regeneration.
Appropriation period01.10.2021 - 30.09.2024
Funded byDAAD
PartnersBudongo Conservation Field Station
Persons in chargeJohn Paul Okimat
CoordinationDr. Martin Ehbrecht
PublicationsNeudam L, Annighöfer P, Seidel D (2022) Exploring the Potential of Mobile Laser Scanning to Quantify Forest Structural Complexity. Frontiers in Remote Sensing. DOI:10.3389/frsen.2022.861337

Annighöfer P, Stiers M, Seidel D, Willim K, Neudam L, Ammer C (2021) Über die Quantifizierbarkeit der 100-jährigen Dauerwaldidee. Allgemeine Forstzeitschrift/Der Wald 76 (1): 23-27

Dorji Y, Schuldt B, Neudam L, Dorji R, Middleby K, Isasa E, Körber K, Ammer C, Annighöfer P, Seidel D (2021): New insights into tree architecture from mobile laser scanning and geometry analysis. Trees- Structure and Function. DOI:10.1007/s00468-021-02124-9


Objective (Subject)Transpiration and growth of European beech exposed to intra- and interspecific competition under drought stress (subproject from “Digital Forest”)
ContentForests are undergoing drastic and mostly irreversible changes induced by more frequent heat waves and drought events associated with climate change, a major environmental threat. The project “Digital Forest” will develop a near real-time forest monitoring concept for predicting major impacts of climate extremes. It includes measurements on Growth and transpiration which are physiological indicators of tree vitality. In order to deepen the understanding of functional mechanisms behind tree reactions to drought and to examine how this response depends on tree size and competition, we will use high-resolution stem increment sensor (DRS 26) and sap flow sensors (SFM 4) installed on 24 trees of 3 species (Fagus sylvatica, Fraxinus excelsior, and Acer pseudoplatanus), to record long term experimental data., by exploring the interrelations between ecophysiological responses and structural stand properties.
Appropriation period15.03.2021 - 14.03.2024
Funded byVolkswagen Foundation and the Federal State of Lower Saxony
PartnersUniversity of Leipzig, Department Bioklimatologie and Department Spatial Structures and Digitization of Forests, University of Göttingen, FORUM WISSEN Göttingen
Persons in chargeLaura Donfack Somenguem
PublicationsDonfack L S, Röll A, Ellsäßer F, Ehbrecht M, Irawan B, Hölscher D, Knohl A, Kreft H, Siahaan E J, Sundawati L, Stiegler C, Zemp D C (2021) Microclimate and land surface temperature in a biodiversity enriched oil palm plantation. Forest Ecology and Management, 497, 119480. DOI:10.1016/j.foreco.2021.119480


objective (Subject)Diversification of forests with indigenous and non-indigenous trees and against the background of cultural history taking the Spessart (Bavaria) as a case study (DIVERS)
contentSince the paradigm shift towards near-natural silviculture in the 1990s, a major goal of current forestry is the conversion or restoration of anthropogenic pure coniferous stands towards more diverse and structurally rich mixed forests. The diversification of forests may be a promising strategy to increase their potential adaptation and resilience to the increasing uncertainties of global (climate) change, to support the conservation and promotion of biodiversity and to ensure the provision of diverse ecosystem services. The diversification of tree species is seen as a viable strategy for the future, particularly, if it can be achieved cost-effectively by natural regeneration. Thus, the conversion of pure coniferous stands into mixed forests can be effectively supported by spontaneously regenerating tree species in addition to the artificial introduction of target tree species. The northern High Spessart with its currently still extensive coniferous stands represents a region in which this can be exemplarily investigated. Extensive vegetation surveys from the 1990s provide a valuable basis for identifying vegetation changes and assessing them against the background of natural ecological processes and management measures. In addition, the abiotic and biotic site factors are to be investigated in their influence on the natural regeneration of the Spessart’s target tree species. In addition to the naturally dominant beech, other natural tree species and in particular the culturally and historically important sessile oak and the non-native Douglas fir are to be examined. The following research gaps are addressed by the study: 1) changes in the vegetation and structure of coniferous stands over the past 25 years under the influence of management measures and climate change, 2) potential of silvicultural integration of culturally and historically important tree species such as oak in the conversion of pure coniferous stands, indicated by natural regeneration, 3) invasion potential of Douglas fir in Central European low mountain ranges.
appropriation period01.03.2021 - 31.12.2023
funded byThe Bavarian State Institute of Forestry (LWF) by means of Bayerischen Staatsministerium für Ernährung, Landwirtschaft und Forsten (StMELF)
partnersFree University of Bozen-Bolzano
persons in chargeAlexander Seliger
publicationsLange F, Ammer C, Leitinger G, Seliger A, Zerbe S (2022) Is Douglas Fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii [Mirbel] Franco) Invasive in Central Europe? A Case Study from South-West Germany. Frontiers in Forests and Global Change 5: 844580. DOI:10.3389/ffgc.2022.844580


Objective (Subject)Spatial and temporal differentiation of soil water uptake of European beech, Norway spruce and Douglas-fir in pure and mixed stands
ContentAs part of RTG2300 „Enrichment of European beech forests with conifers”, this project continues the previous work on rooting patterns, root growth and water uptake in response to interspecific competition. Increasingly prolonged drought periods, which are projected for large parts of central Europe, raise the question in which way different species and stand types adjust their water regime to these conditions. In that respect, soil water use by tree roots is playing a vital role. The aim of this project is to investigate species-specific differences in water uptake depth as well as the effects of species mixtures on its patterns. It is assumed that interspecific competition leads to complementary resource use in the form of spatially or temporally differentiated water uptake. By means of stable isotopes (2H, 18O) which can be used to trace water from soil to tree xylem, these processes will be explored and analyzed in connection with site conditions, tree growth and water status. A deeper understanding of mixing effects on root functionality and forest hydrology will facilitate a forest management adjusted to future needs.
Appropriation period01.01.2021-31.12.2023
Funded byDeutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG)
PartnersMembers of the Research Training Group 2300
Persons in chargeChristina Hackmann
CoordinationDr. Serena Müller
Publicationsunavailable so far


Objective (Subject)Analysis of the three-dimensional tree structure with the help of laser scanners with the aim of detecting stress-induced changes in the individual tree structure (subproject from Digital Forest)
ContentForests are complex systems that are influenced by multiple stress factors, which can have a negative impact on the health of the stand or the individual trees. This issue is becoming more and more important in present times. Therefore, it will be particularly important now and in the future to develop methods that make it possible to detect decline in tree vitality. Apart from physiological indicators, it can be assumed that structural changes in the architecture are also parameters for the vitality assessment of trees. Structural changes in individual trees and stand structure are often described in practice by visual assessment of the crown in terms of bare patches, and by observation of branch dieback and bark loss. However, the disadvantages are the subjective assessment, limited reproducibility, and the need to involve experts in the process. As methods for high-resolution measurement of tree and forest structure have improved significantly in recent years, it can be assumed that these techniques, especially laser scanning, will provide further opportunities for observing structural changes as a result of stress factors. Within a sub-project of the "Digital Forest" project, modern laser scanning techniques will be used to create precise three-dimensional tree models in the leafy state based on monthly measurements in the field. The temporal changes in the crown structure will be studied using a wide variety of analysis methods, including fractal analysis. In the end, the results of the study will be made available to the public in a virtual reality exhibition at the Forum Wissen Göttingen.
Appropriation period15.03.2021 - 14.03.2024
Funded byVolkswagen Foundation und das Bundesland Niedersachsen
PartnersUniversität Leipzig, CBL (Centre of Biodiversity and sustainable Land Use) und FORUM WISSEN Göttingen
Person in chargeMarius Heidenreich
Publicationsunavailable so far


Objective (Subject)Architectural traits of trees in response to different neighborhoods and their importance for stand structural characteristics
ContentThe main objective of this subproject is to quantify the effects of tree species mixture on single-tree architectural traits of beech, Norway spruce and Douglas-fir trees (e.g. symmetry, branching pattern, fractal characteristics, crown surface area) and how they determine the overall stand characteristics, such as space occupation or stand structural complexity. The assumption is that mixed neighborhoods will have a greater variability in crown shapes due to the genetically different tree forms of different species. The latter result in more divers spatial niche occupation pattern and greater variability in light availability in the understory, as well as greater variability in competition pressure in mixed stands when compared to pure stands. This will in turn lead to less regular tree architectures and greater variability in tree architectural traits. Additionally, relationships between tree crown architecture and stem properties and whether they change in different stand types (mixture vs. pure) will be addressed.
Appropriation period01.01.2021-31.12.2023
Funded byDeutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG)
PartnersMembers of the Research Training Group 2300
Person in chargeAlice Penanhoat
CoordinationDr. Serena Müller
Publicationsunavailable so far


Objective (Subject)Knowledge Transfer 2.0 – Making biodiversity research effective for biodiversity conservation
ContentDas Projekt Wissenstransfer 2.0 ist Teil des DFG- Forschungsverbundes Biodiversitäts-Exploratorien. Ziel der Biodiversitäts-Exploratorien ist es, die komplexen Zusammenhänge zwischen Biodiversität, Ökosystemfunktionen und Bewirtschaftung besser zu verstehen, und die Folgen unterschiedlicher Bewirtschaftungsoptionen für die Biodiversität und die damit verbundenen Ökosystemprozesse aufzuzeigen. Dies kann helfen, Synergien und Konflikte zwischen Ökosystemfunktionen und Bewirtschaftungszielen zu identifizieren und der Praxis dringend benötigte Entscheidungshilfen an die Hand zu geben. Im Wissenstransferprojekt möchten wir den Austausch von Ergebnissen, Wissen und Erfahrungen zwischen den Biodiversitäts-Exploratorien und der Praxis von Forstwirtschaft und Naturschutz fördern und somit die Forschungsergebnisse der Biodiversitäts-Exploratorien für den Schutz der Biodiversität und die Menschen nutzbar machen. Um dies zu erreichen, möchten wir insbesondere:
• die Forschungsergebnisse der Biodiversitäts-Exploratorien praxisorientiert vermitteln,
• die kontinuierliche und direkte Kommunikation zwischen Wissenschaftler*innen und Praktikern*innen aus Naturschutz, Forst und Jagd unterstützen,
• das Wissen, die Erfahrungen und die offenen Fragen der Praxis in die Forschung der Biodiversitäts-Exploratorien einbinden.
Aufbauend auf den Ergebnissen der vorhergehenden Projektphase (Wissenstransfer 1.0) umfasst das Projekt drei Arbeitspakete:
(1) Transdisziplinäre Forschungsprojekte
(2) Analyse der wichtigsten Triebkräfte für die Biodiversität im Wald
(3) Kontinuierlicher bilateraler Wissenstransfer
Appropriation period01.04.2020-31.03.2023
Funded byDeutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG)
PartnersLandeskompetenzzentrum Forst, Eberswalde; Biosphärenreservat Schorfheide-Chorin; Forstamt Hainich-Werratal; Nationalpark Hainich; Kreisforstamt Reutlingen; Forstamt Leinefelde; Forstamt Heiligenstadt; Forstliches Forschungs- und Kompetenzzentrum Gotha; Stadt Mühlhausen; Biosphärengebiet Schwäbische Alb
Persons in chargeDr. Steffi Heinrichs und Dr. Martina Mund
PublicationsHeinrichs S, Schall P, Ammer C, Fischer M, Gossner MM (2020) Annahmen und Ergebnisse zur Biodiversität im Wirtschaftswald - Neues aus der Biodiversitätsforschung. WSL-Berichte 100: 15-29

Schall P, Heinrichs S (2020) Comment on "Forest microclimate dynamics drive plant responses to warming". Science 370. DOI:10.1126/science.abd9920

Schall P, Heinrichs S, Ammer C, Ayasse M, Boch S, Buscot F, Fischer M, Goldmann K, Overmann J, Schulze E-D, Sikorski J, Weisser WW, Wubet T, Gossner MM (2020) Can multi-taxa diversity in European beech forest landscapes be increased by combining different management systems? Journal of Applied Ecology 57: 1363-1375. DOI:10.1111/1365-2664.13635


Objective (Subject)Adaptation strategies of beech forests to changing environmental conditions with different management intensity (NaWi)
ContentThe importance of stand structure is a controversial topic with regard to the productivity of forests and their vulnerability to biotic and abiotic disturbances. Until a few years ago, clear statements on the significance of stand structure for productivity and stability were not possible for methodological reasons, since an appropriate measuring technique for the quantitative description of stand structure was not available. This has changed significantly with the use of modern laser scanning technology. Hence, stand structure (e.g. space-filling, structural complexity) can be determined quantitatively. In a joint research project dealing with the impact of forest management on stand structure und on the ability of forests to adapt to climate change, stand structural properties of 24 stands are derived from the laser scans. We investigate whether they are related to the management intensity or the growth response of the trees. With a mobile laser scanner the above-ground stocks are determined.
Appropriation period01.02.2020 - 31.01.2023
Funded by"Waldklimafonds" by means of Federal Ministry of Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety
Persons in chargeLiane Neudam
Publicationsunavailable so far


Objective (Subject)Effects of forest management on biodiversity
ContentThe aim of the joint project is to assess the effects of forest management or natural forest dynamics after abandonment on biodiversity in a review. In combination with methodological tests and the processing of existing results and data sets, a conceivable concept for a long-term oriented monitoring system for Germany at the landscape level is to be developed. By this, the effects of forest management on biodiversity may be captured reliably.
Appropriation period01.04.2017 - 31.08.2020
Funded byAgency for renewable resources by means of Federal Ministry of Food and Agriculture
PartnersPlant Interactions Ecophysiology, University of Konstanz; Chair of Tree physiology, University of Freiburg; Dep. of Soil Science of the temperate Zones and Dep. of Ecology and ecosystem research, University of Göttingen, Northwest-German Forest Research Station, Senkenberg Institute
Persons in charge(Laura Zeller parental leave), Agnes Förster
PublicationsZeller L, Baumann C, Gonin P, Heidrich L, Keye C, Konrad F, Larrieu L, Meyer P, Sennhenn-Reulen H, Müller J, Schall P, Ammer C (2022) Index of biodiversity potential (IBP) versus direct species monitoring in temperate forests. Ecological Indicators 136, 108692. DOI:10.1016/j.ecolind.2022.108692

Hagge J, Schmidt M, Ammer C, Dorow W, Keye C, Pauls S, Roschak C, Schneider A, Meyer P (2021) Zielsetzungen und Anforderungen an ein bundesweites Insektenmonitoring in Wäldern. Naturschutz und Landschaftsplanung 53: 10-13


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  • Objective (Subject)Optimizing forest management towards improved strength properties of softwood construction timber (FutureWood)
    ContentThe project`s main objective is to investigate how silvicultural treatments affect the strength properties of construction timber of economically relevant conifer species The project is divided into the following four sub-projects: (1) Effects of silvicultural treatment on strength properties of construction timber of Norway spruce (Picea abies), Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii), Grand fir (Abies grandis), Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis). (2) Optimizing wood utilization under different management intensities in conifer stands, (3) Cost-benefit-analysis of silvicultural treatments to produce construction timber of Norway spruce and Douglas fir, (4) Ecological evaluation of different silvicultural treatments based on 3D forest structure and biodiversity. The subprojects 1-3 are handled by the Faculty of Sustainable Resource Management of the University of Applied Sciences and Art Hildesheim/Holzminden/Göttingen (HAWK) and the Fraunhofer-Institute for Wood Science (WKI). Subproject 4 is handled by the department of Silviculture and Forest Ecology of the temperate zones and aims to investigate relationships between forest management intensity, 3D forest structure and plant diversity
    Appropriation period01.01.2019 - 31.12.2021
    Funded byAgency of renewable resources (FNR) by means of the Federal Ministry of Food and Agriculture
    PartnersEGGER Holzwerkstoffe Brilon GmbH & Co. KG,
    Niedersächsische Landesforsten,
    Landesbetrieb Hessen Forst,
    Oldershausen HOFOS GmbH,
    Ministerium für Landwirtschaft, Umwelt und Verbraucherschutz Mecklenburg-Vorpommern
    Persons in chargeDr. Dominik Seidel und Dr. Kirsten Höwler
    PublicationsUnavailable so far


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  • Objective (Subject)Structural complexity of boreal, temperate and tropical primary forests
    ContentPrimary forests play a crucial role for biodiversity conservation and the regulation of global carbon and water cycles. The project`s main objective is to identify the natural range and climatic controls of the structural complexity of undisturbed primary forests. Therefore, primary forest structures are studied and assessed along a climatic gradient from boreal, to temperate and tropical forests using terrestrial laser scanning. Based on relationships between climate and forest structure, we aim to model and map the potential structural complexity globally and to estimate its probable responses to climate change.
    Appropriation period01.01.2019 - 01.05.2019
    Funded byEva-Mayr-Stihl Foundation
    Persons in chargeDr. Martin Ehbrecht
    PublicationsEhbrecht M, Seidel D, Annighöfer P, Kreft H, Köhler M, Zemp DC, Puettmann K, Nilus R, Babweteera F, Willim K, Stiers M, Soto D, Boehmer HJ, Fisichelli N, Burnett M, Juday G, Stephens S, Ammer C (2021) Global patterns and climatic controls of forest structural complexity. Nature Communications: 12:519, DOI:10.1038/s41467-020-20767-z


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  • Objective (Subject)Assessment of quality attributes and automated quality grading of standing trees through the use of mobile laser scanning
    ContentMain goal of the study is the development of a method for an objective and assessment of wood quality-related attributes of standing trees including a routine for an automated log-grading based on 3D data from mobile laser scanning. Through the combination of highly efficient mobile laser scanning and routines for an automated grading of the logs the project aims at building the foundation for a operational commercial application in the near future
    Appropriation period01.01.2018 - 31.12.2020
    Funded byLandwirtschaftliche Rentenbank
    Persons in chargeDr. Dominik Seidel
    PublicationsSeidel D, Annighöfer P, Thielman A, Seifert Q, Thauer J-H, Glatthorn J, Ehbrecht M, Kneib T, Ammer C (2021): Predicting tree species from 3D laser scanning point clouds using deep learning. Frontiers in Plant Science, DOI: 10.3389/fpls.2021.635440

    Burkardt K, Pettenkofer T, Ammer C, Gailing O, Leinemann L, Seidel D, Vor T (2020): Influence of heterozygosity and competition on morphological tree characteristics of Quercus rubra L.: a new single-tree based approach. New Forests52: 679-695, DOI: 10.1007/s11056-020-09814-1

    Burkardt K, Annighöfer P, Seidel D, Ammer C, Vor T (2019) Intraspecific Competition Affects Crown and Stem Characteristics of Non-Native Quercus rubra L. Stands in Germany. Forests 10(846): 1-15. DOI:10.3390/f10100846 Dorji Y, Annighöfer P, Ammer C, Seidel D (2019): Response of beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) trees to competition- new insights from using fractal analysis. Remote Sensing 11 (22): 2656. DOI:10.3390/rs11222656. Höwler K, Vor T, Seidel D, Annighöfer P, Ammer C (2019) Analyzing effects of intra- and interspecific competition on timber quality attributes of Fagus sylvatica L. - from quality assessments on standing trees to sawn boards. European Journal of Forest Research 327-343. DOI:10.1007/s10342-019-01173-7


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  • Objective (Subject)Enriching European beech forests with conifers: impacts on ecosystem functioning
    ContentEnriching native forests in Central Europe and in other parts of the world with non-native tree species such as Douglas-fir carries a high potential for the adaptation of forests to climate change. Introducing exotic tree species outside of their native range creates novel ecosystems whose dynamics, processes and compositions may be different than in native ecosystems. This can have an impact on many goods and services that are provided by forests, such as timber production, climate change mitigation or ground water refilling. Decision makers need a sound understanding of the chances and risks of the promotion of non-native tree species on all parts of the ecosystem. Formation of mixed stands of native and non-native tree species, such as mixtures of European beech and Douglas fir, are of particular interest as they provide an optimal trade-off between different ecosystems goods. The primary goal of this research is to synthesize results from all subprojects of the research training group Enrico regarding ecosystem functioning of pure and mixed stands of European beech, Douglas-fir and Norway spruce. To achieve this, a framework for the interdisciplinary study of forest ecosystem functioning was developed (Glatthorn et al. 2021) that will be used to study impacts of the enrichment of European beech forests with conifers holistically.
    Appropriation period01.10.2017 - 31.03.2022
    Funded byDeutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG)
    PartnersMembers of the Research Training Group 2300
    Persons in chargeDr. Jonas Glatthorn
    CoordinationDr. Serena Müller
    PublicationsGlatthorn J, Annighöfer P, Balkenhol N, Leuschner C, Polle A, Scheu S, Schuldt A, Schuldt B, Ammer C (2021) An interdisciplinary framework to describe and evaluate the functioning of forest ecosystems. Basic and Applied Ecology, 52(4), 1-14. DOI:10.1016/j.baae.2021.02.006


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  • Objective (Subject)Rooting patterns, root growth, and water uptake in response to interspecific competition. Subproject 1 of the Research Training Group 2300 “Enrichment of European beech forests with conifers: impacts of functional traits on ecosystem functioning”
    ContentThe societal demands for ecosystem goods and services are globally increasing. One possibility to meet this challenge is to manage forests in such a way that aspects of wood production and forest conservation are combined. Against this background, mixed forest stands composed of locally occurring native tree species and highly productive tree species growing outside of their native range of distribution are of particular interest. Despite the importance of native-non-native tree species mixtures, their impact on ecosystem functioning has rarely been studied. It is generally assumed that presence, abundance, distribution, and diversity of functional traits are more important for ecosystem functioning than species diversity per se. To specify this assumption the proposed RTG aims at identifying the functional traits and associated mechanisms that control ecosystem functioning in pure and mixed stands of European beech (Fagus sylvatica, a deciduous tree species which would be the dominant tree species in Central Europe under natural conditions) with Norway spruce (Picea abies, a native conifer species mainly cultivated outside its natural range) or Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii, a non-native conifer species, which originates from the Pacific Northwest of North-America). Within the framework of the RTG 2300 subproject 1 investigates fine root distribution water up-take and stem growth in pure and mixed stands.
    Appropriation period01.10.2017 - 30.04.2022
    Funded byDeutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG)
    PartnersMembers of the Research Training Group 2300
    Persons in chargeAmani Lwila
    CoordinationDr. Serena Müller
    PublicationsLwila A, Mund M, Ammer C, Glatthorn J (2021) Site conditions more than species identity drive fine root biomass, morphology and spatial distribution in temperate pure and mixed forests Forest Ecology and Management 499: 119581


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  • Objective (Subject)Resource availability and seedling establishment. Subproject 8 of the Research Training Group 2300 “Enrichment of European beech forests with conifers: impacts of functional traits on ecosystem functioning”
    ContentThe societal demands for ecosystem goods and services are globally increasing. One possibility to meet this challenge is to manage forests in such a way that aspects of wood production and forest conservation are combined. Against this background, mixed forest stands composed of locally occurring native tree species and highly productive tree species growing outside of their native range of distribution are of particular interest. Despite the importance of native-non-native tree species mixtures, their impact on ecosystem functioning has rarely been studied. It is generally assumed that presence, abundance, distribution, and diversity of functional traits are more important for ecosystem functioning than species diversity per se. To specify this assumption the proposed RTG aims at identifying the functional traits and associated mechanisms that control ecosystem functioning in pure and mixed stands of European beech (Fagus sylvatica, a deciduous tree species which would be the dominant tree species in Central Europe under natural conditions) with Norway spruce (Picea abies, a native conifer species mainly cultivated outside its natural range) or Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii, a non-native conifer species, which originates from the Pacific Northwest of North-America). Within the framework of the RTG 2300 subproject 8 investigates the resource availability of tree regeneration and its development after direct seeding and planting in pure and mixed stands.
    Appropriation period01.10.2017 - 30.04.2022
    Funded byDeutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG)
    PartnersMembers of the Research Training Group 2300
    Persons in chargeIeva Bebre
    CoordinationDr. Serena Müller
    PublicationsBebre I, Riebl H, Annighöfer P (2021) Seedling growth and biomass production under different light availability levels and competition types. Forests 12: 1376. DOI10.3390/f12101376

    Bebre I, Annighöfer P, Ammer C, Seidel D (2020) Growth, morphology, and biomass allocation of recently planted seedlings of seven European tree species along a light gradient. iForest 13: 261-269. DOI:10.3832/ifor3370-013


    Objective (Subject)Strategies for the economical use and silvicultural treatment of heavily bark-stripped deciduous stands
    ContentThe primary goal of the project is to identify economic and silvicultural options to deal with heavily bark-stripped beech and mixed beech stands of the first and second age classes. The aim is to develop a catalogue of actions which may help the practitioner to decide which measures are possible in order to achieve the best possible economic and silvicultural results. The silvicultural treatment and the economic use of damaged stands, both from a forestry point of view and from the point of view of the woodworking and wood processing industry, are the technical objectives of the present project. The scientific objective is to predict the future development of value and stand stability by analysing short to long-term tree overgrowth reactions.
    Appropriation period01.04.2017 - 31.08.2020
    Funded byAgency for renewable resources by means of Federal Ministry of Food and Agriculture
    Persons in chargeMaximilian Rößner und Dr. Torsten Vor
    PublicationsUnavailable so far


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  • Objective (Subject)Using terrestrial laser scanning for a quantitative assessment of forest structure along a gradient of management intensity
    ContentThe high structural heterogeneity of primary forests is assumed to positively affect several ecosystem services and function, such as biodiversity, ecosystem resilience or ecosystem adaptability. Therefore, today’s silvicultural practices often try to mimic, or accelerate the formation of old-growth structures in managed forests.
    Despite our knowledge on the importance of structures it is still difficult to measure the three-dimensional stand structure in a quantitative manner. For this reason we have little information about the structural differences between primary forests, managed forests and protected forests where management was ceased for several years (e.g. national parks). With the recent advancements in terrestrial laser scanning we now have the means to analyze the relationships between detailed spatial patterns of a forest and ecosystem functions.
    In this project we aim at gaining a deeper understanding of forest structure and its modification through management along a gradient of management intensity. We will use 3D point clouds to address scale-issues of structure as well as determine, amongst others, old-growthness, space-filling, and structural complexity.
    Appropriation period01.04.2017 – 31.03.2020
    Funded byDr. Erich-Ritter-Stiftung
    PartnersLaboratory of Forest Sciences, Carpathian Biosphere Reserve, Rakhiv, Ukraine and Swiss Federal Institute for Forest, Snow and Landscape (WSL)
    Persons in chargeMelissa Stiers und Katharina Willim
    PublicationsWillim K, Ammer C, Seidel D, Annighöfer P, Schmucker J, Schall P, Ehbrecht M (2022) Short - term dynamics of structural complexity in differently managed and unmanaged European beech forests. Trees, Forests and People 8: 100231 DOI:10.1016/j.tfp.2022.100231

    Annighöfer P, Stiers M, Seidel D, Willim K, Neudam L, Ammer C (2021) Über die Quantifizierbarkeit der 100-jährigen Dauerwaldidee. Allgemeine Forstzeitschrift/Der Wald 76 (1): 23-27

    Stiers M, Annighöfer P, Seidel D, Willim K, Neudam L, Ammer C (2020): Quantifying the target state of forest stands managed with the continuous cover approach - revisiting Möller's “Dauerwald” concept after 100 years. Trees, Forests and People (1): 100004. DOI:10.1016/j.tfp.2020.100004

    Stiers M, Willim K, Seidel D, Ammer C, Kabal M, Stillhard J, Annighöfer P (2019) Analyzing spatial distribution patterns of European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) regeneration in dependence of canopy openings. Forests 10: 637. DOI:10.3390/f10080637

    Seidel D, Annighöfer P, Stiers M, Zemp C D, Burkardt K, Ehbrecht M, Willim K, Kreft H, Hölscher D, Ammer C (2019): How a measure of structural complexity relates to architectural benefit-to-cost ratio, light availability and growth of trees. Ecology and Evolution 00:1-9. DOI: 10.1002/ece3.5281

    Willim K, Stiers M, Annighöfer P, Ehbrecht M, Kabal M, Ammer C, Seidel D (2019): Assessing understory complexity in beech-dominated forests (Fagus sylvatica L.) in Central Europe- from managed to primary forests. Sensors 19 (7): 1684. DOI:10.3390/s19071684

    Stiers M, Willim K, Seidel D, Ehbrecht M, Kabal M, Ammer C, Annighöfer P (2018) A quantitative comparison of the structural complexity of managed, lately unmanaged and primary European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) forests. Forest Ecology and Management 430: 357-365. DOI: 10.1016/j.foreco.2018.08.039


    objektiveA Knowledge Transfer Project - From fundamental biodiversity research to practical recommendations for a biodiversity-orientated forest management
    contentSince its establishment, the DFG-Biodiversity Exploratories (BE) have created a huge amount of data and results regarding the effects of forest management on biodiversity, and of biodiversity on ecosystem functioning, goods and services. This offers a great potential for knowledge transfer from biodiversity research to forestry and conservation practice, and vice versa. The urgent request by local stakeholders to make the results from the BE available and useable for their daily and practical work underlines the importance of such a transfer. The main objectives of the project are: a)to transfer BE results to scales most relevant for forestry practice and nature conservation, and b)to develop and transfer practice-orientated management options that optimize forest goods and services and biodiversity conservation at real forest landscapes.
    term01.04.2017-31.03.2023
    funded byGerman Science Foundation (DFG)
    partnersFederal Competence Centre Forestry, Eberswalde; Public Forestry Office Hainich-Werratal; Hainich Nationalpark; Public Forestry Office Reutlingen; Public Forestry Office Leinefelde; Public Forestry Office Heiligenstadt; Forest Research and Competence Centre Gotha; City of Mühlhausen
    persons in chargeDr. Steffi Heinrichs and Dr. Martina Mund
    publicationsHeinrichs S, Ammer C, Mund M, Boch S, Budde S, Fischer M, Müller J, Schöning I, Schulze E-D, Schmidt W, Weckesser M, Schall P (2019) Landscape-Scale Mixtures of Tree Species are More Effective than Stand-Scale Mixtures for Biodiversity of Vascular Plants, Bryophytes and Lichens. Forests 10(1):73. DOI:10.3390/f10010073

    Schall P, Gossner MM, Heinrichs S, Fischer M, Boch S, Prati D, Jung K, Baumgartner V, Blaser S, Böhm S, Buscot F, Daniel R, Goldmann K, Kaiser K, Kahl T, Lange M, Müller J, Overmann J, Renner SC, Schulze E-D, Sikorski J, Tschapka M, Türke M, Weisser WW, Wemheuer B, Wubet T, (2018) The impact of even-aged and uneven-aged forest management on regional biodiversity of multiple taxa in European beech forests. Journal of Applied Ecology 55: 267-278

    Ammer C, Schall P, Gossner M M, Heinrichs S, Boch S, Prati D, Jung K, Baumgartner V, Blaser S, Böhm S, Buscot F, Daniel R, Goldmann K, Kaiser K, Kahl T, Lange M, Müller J, Overmann J, Renner S C, Schulze E-D, Sikorski J, Tschapka M, Türke M, Weisser W W, Wemheuer B, Wubet T, Fischer M (2017) Waldbewirtschaftung und Biodiversität: Vielfalt ist gefragt. Allgemeine Forstzeitschrift/Der Wald 72 (17): 20-25


    Objective (Subject)Study the regeneration patterns of IUCN’s red-listed species and their dependence of environmental factors in the Cat Ba National Park, Vietnam
    ContentIn view of its floristic biodiversity the Cat Ba National Park is one of the most important national parks in Vietnam. It is located on the limestone archipelago in north-eastern Viet Nam and consists of thousands of islands and islets. Cat Ba National Park contains 58 species which are listed in Vietnam’s Red-list, and another 16 species which are listed in IUCN’s Red-list. Against this background, the importance to preserve their habitats is of national and global importance. Due to distinct characteristics of the limestone terrain and various anthropogenic effects, many of the Red-listed species currently only regenerate poorly. Furthermore, requirements for their successful regeneration have partly not been studied in detail. Therefore, this project focusses on assessing the effect of abiotic and biotic environmental factors on the regeneration of the Red-listed species.
    Appropriation period01.04.2016 – 31.03.2020
    Funded byVietnam Government and Rufford Small Grant
    PartnersCat Ba National Park
    Persons in chargePham van Vien
    PublicationsPham VV, Ammer C, Annighöfer P, Heinrichs S (2022) Tree regeneration characteristics in limestone forests of the Cat Ba National Park, Vietnam. BMC Ecology and Evolution 22: 6. DOI:10.1186/s12862-021-01957-9

    Pham V V, Ammer C, Annighöfer P (2020) The presence of IUCN red list tree species in dependence of site characteristics in the Vietnamese Cat Ba National Park. Diversity 12: 104


    Objective (Subject) Genetic und silvicultural studies on origin, growth and stem quality of red oak (Quercus rubra L.) in Germany (FKZ 22023314)
    ContentThe origin of selected red oak stands across Germany shall be identified by DNA markers. In addition, growth and stem quality in relation to neighborhood competition is quantified. Regeneration inventories aim to determine the invasive potential of red oak.
    Appropriation period 01.04.2016 - 31.03.2020
    Funded by "Agency for renewable resources" by means of Federal Ministry of Food and Agriculture (BMEL)
    PartnersDepartment of Forest Genetics and Forest Tree Breeding
    Person in chargeKatharina Burkardt, Dr. Tim Pettenkofer
    PublicationsBurkardt K, Ammer C, Seidel D, Vor T (2021) Differences in stem form and bark anomalies of northern red oak trees in forest stands in Canada and Germany? Canadian Journal of Forest Research 51: 1732-1739

    Burkardt K, Pettenkofer T, Ammer C, Gailing O, Leinemann L, Seidel D, Vor T (2021) Influence of heterozygosity and competition on morphological tree characteristics of Quercus rubra L. - a new single-tree based approach. New Forests 52: 679-695

    Burkardt K, Annighöfer P, Seidel D, Ammer C, Vor T (2019) Intraspecific Competition Affects Crown and Stem Characteristics of Non-Native Quercus rubra L. Stands in Germany. Forests 10(846): 1-15. DOI:10.3390/f10100846

    Pettenkofer T, Burkardt K, Ammer C, Vor T, Finkeldey R, Müller M, Krutovsky K, Vornam B, Leinemann L, Gailing O (2019) Genetic diversity and differentiation of introduced red oak (Quercus rubra) in Germany in comparison with reference native North American populations. European Journal of Forest Research 138 (2): 275-285. DOI: 10.1007/s10342-019-01167-5


    Objective (Subject)Ungulate management and biodiversity in managed forests (FKZ 3515 685 B01)
    ContentOver-abundant deer populations may lead to species loss and a resulting destabilization of forest ecosystems. In four pilot regions new strategies are tested to achieve a more balanced situation. More specifically, the effect of different hunting strategies on vegetation and wildlife is studied and economically quantified (for more information see: www.biowildprojekt.de).
    Appropriation period 15.09.2015 - 30.08.2021
    funded by Federal Agency for Nature Conservation (BfN) with funds of the Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety (BMU)
    partnersArbeitsgemeinschaft Naturgemäße Waldwirtschaft (Hans von der Goltz) , TU München (Prof. Thomas Knoke), TU Dresden (Prof. Michael Müller)
    person in chargeDr. Torsten Vor
    publicationsUnavailable so far


    Objective (Subject)Forest structure. Core project of the Exploratories for large-scale and long-term functional biodiversity research
    ContentThe project is one of the core projects of the German Biodiversity Exploratories. The aim is to provide comprehensive sets of data on (i) forest structure, (ii) forest composition, (iii) forest productivity and (iv) forest land use intensity in order to support functional biodiversity research (that is, providing explanatory variables for core projects, contributing projects and synthesis of the Biodiversity Exploratories) and to uncover interdependency between structure, composition, productivity and land use intensity of forests, respectively (that is, analysing effects of forest management and natural development). Data will be sampled using methods of "classical" stand inventory, airborne laser scanning and terrestrial laser scanning.
    Appropriation period01.04.2014 - 31.03.2023
    funded byGerman Science Foundation
    partnersBiodiversity Exploratories (DFG Priority Programm 1374)
    person in chargeDr. Peter Schall and Dr. Martin Ehbrecht
    publicationsBurner RC, Drag L, Stephan JG, Birkemoe T, Wetherbee R, Muller J, Siitonen J, Snäll T, Skarpaas O, Potterf M, Doerfler I, Gossner MM, Schall P, Weisser WW, Sverdrup-Thygeson A (2022) Functional structure of European forest beetle communities is enhanced by rare species. Biological Conservation 267:109491. DOI: 10.1016/j.biocon.2022.109491

    Boch S, Saiz H, Allan E, Schall P, Prati D, Schulze E-D, Hessenmöller D, Sparrius LB, Fischer M (2021) Direct and Indirect Effects of Management Intensity and Environmental Factors on the Functional Diversity of Lichens in Central European Forests. Microorganisms 9:463. DOI:10.3390/microorganisms9020463

    Burner RC, Stephan JG, Drag L, Birkemoe T, Muller J, Snäll T, Ovaskainen O, Potterf M, Siitonen J, Skarpaas O, Doerfler I, Gossner MM, Schall P, Weisser WW, Sverdrup-Thygeson A (2021) Traits mediate niches and co-occurrences of forest beetles in ways that differ among bioclimatic regions. Journal of Biogeography, 48: 3145-3157. DOI:10.1111/jbi.14272

    Burrascano S, Trentanovi G, Paillet Y, Heilmann-Clausen J, Giordani P, Bagella S, Bravo-Oviedo A, Campagnaro T, Campanaro A, Francesco C, Smedt P de, Itziar G-M, Matošević D, Sitzia T, Aszalós R, Brazaitis G, Andrea C, Ettore D, Doerfler I, Hofmeister J, Hošek J, Janssen P, Kepfer Rojas S, Korboulewsky N, Kozák D, Lachat T, Lõhmus A, Lopez R, Mårell A, Matula R, Mikoláš M, Munzi S, Nordén B, Pärtel M, Penner J, Runnel K, Schall P, Svoboda M, Tinya F, Ujházyová M, Vandekerkhove K, Verheyen K, Xystrakis F, Ódor P (2021) Handbook of field sampling for multi-taxon biodiversity studies in European forests. Ecological Indicators 132:108266. DOI:10.1016/j.ecolind.2021.108266

    Neff F, Brändle M, Ambarli D, Ammer C, Bauhus J, Boch S, Hölzel N, Klaus VH, Kleinebecker T, Prati D, Schall P, Schäfer D, Schulze E-D, Seibold S, Simons NK, Weisser WW, Pellissier L, Gossner MM (2021) Changes in plant-herbivore network structure and robustness along land-use intensity gradients in grasslands and forests. Science Advances 7:eabf3985. DOI:10.1126/sciadv.abf3985

    Schall P, Heinrichs S, Ammer C, Ayasse M, Boch S, Buscot F, Fischer M, Goldmann K, Overmann J, Schulze E-D, Sikorski J, Weisser W, Wubet T, Gossner MM (2021) Among stand heterogeneity is key for biodiversity in managed beech forests but does not question the value of unmanaged forests: Response to Bruun & Heilmann Clausen (2020). Journal of Applied Ecology 58: 1817-1826. DOI:10.1111/1365-2664.13959

    Seibold S, Hothorn T, Gossner MM, Simons NK, Blüthgen N, Müller J, Ambarlı D, Ammer C, Bauhus J, Fischer M, Habel JC, Penone C, Schall P, Schulze E-D, Weisser WW (2021) Insights from regional and short-term biodiversity monitoring datasets are valuable: a reply to Daskalova et al. 2021. Insect Conservation and Diversity 14: 144-148. DOI:10.1111/icad.12467

    Simons NK, Felipe-Lucia MR, Schall P, Ammer C, Bauhus J, Blüthgen N, Boch S, Buscot F, Fischer M, Goldmann K, Gossner MM, Hänsel F, Jung K, Manning P, Nauss T, Oelmann Y, Pena R, Polle A, Renner SC, Schloter M, Schöning I, Schulze E-D, Solly EF, Sorkau E, Stempfhuber B, Wubet T, Müller J, Seibold S, Weisser WW (2021) National Forest Inventories capture the multifunctionality of managed forests in Germany. Forest Ecosystems 8:5. DOI:10.1186/s40663-021-00280-5

    Willems FM, Scheepens JF, Ammer C, Block S, Bucharova A, Schall P, Sehrt M, Bossdorf O (2021) Spring understory herbs flower later in intensively managed forests. Ecological Applications: e02332. https://doi.org/10.1002/eap.2332

    Bae S, Heidrich L, Levick SR, Gossner MM, Seibold S, Weisser WW, Magdon P, Serebryanyk A, Bässler C, Schäfer D, Schulze E-D, Doerfler I, Müller J, Jung K, Heurich M, Fischer M, Roth N, Schall P, Boch S, Wöllauer S, Renner SC, Müller J (2020) Dispersal ability, trophic position and body size mediate species turnover processes: Insights from a multi-taxa and multi-scale approach. Diversity and Distributions 1-15. DOI:10.1111/ddi.13204

    Felipe-Lucia MR, Soliveres S, Penone C, Fischer M, Ammer C, Boch S, … Schall P, … Allan E (2020). Land-use intensity alters biodiversity - ecosystem function - service networks. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 117(45): 28140-28149, DOI:10.1073/pnas.2016210117

    Gan H Y, Schöning I, Schall P, Ammer C, Schrumpf M (2020) Soil organic matter mineralization as driven by nutrient stoichiometry in soils under differently managed forest stands. Frontiers in Forests and Global Change 3: 99. DOI:10.3389/ffgc.2020.00099

    Heidrich L, Bae S, Levick S, Seibold S, Weisser W, Krzystek P, Magdon P, Nauss T, Schall P, Serebryanyk A, Wöllauer S, Ammer C, Bässler C, Doerfler I, Fischer M, Gossner M M, Heurich H, Hothorn T, Jung K, Kreft H, Schulze E-D, Simons N, Thorn S, Müller J (2020): Heterogeneity-diversity relationships differ between and within trophic levels in temperate forests. Nature Ecology and Evolution 4: 1204-1212. DOI:10.1038/s41559-020-1245-z

    Seibold S, Gossner MM, Simons NK, Blüthgen N, Müller J, Ambarlı D, Ammer C, Bauhus J, Fischer M, Habel JC, Linsenmair KE, Nauss T, Penone C, Prati D, Schall P, Schulze E-D, Vogt J, Wöllauer S, Weisser WW (2019) Arthropod decline in grasslands and forests is associated with landscape-level drivers. Nature 574: 671-674. DOI:10.1038/s41586-019-1684-3

    Schäfer D, Prati D, Schall P, Ammer C, Fischer M (2019) Exclusion of large herbivores affects understorey shrub vegetation more than herb vegetation across 147 forest sites in three German regions. PLoS ONE 14(7): e0218741. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0218741

    Awad A, Majcherczyk A, Schall P, Schröter K, Schöning I, Schrumpf M, Ehbrecht M, Boch S, Kahl T, Bauhus J, Seidel D, Ammer C, Fischer M, Kües U, Pena R (2019) Ectomycorrhizal and saprotrophic soil fungal biomass are driven by different factors and vary among broadleaf and coniferous temperate forests. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 131: 9-18

    Ehbrecht M, Schall P, Ammer C, Seidel D (2019) Effects of structural heterogeneity on the diurnal temperature range in temperate forest ecosystems. Forest Ecology and Management 432: 860-867, DOI:10.1016/j.foreco.2018.10.008

    Penone C, Allan E, Soliveres S, Felipe-Lucia MR, Gossner MM, Seibold S, Simons NK, Schall P, van der Plas F, Manning P, Manzanedo RD, Boch S, Prati D, Ammer C, Bauhus J, Buscot F, Ehbrecht M, Goldmann K, Jung K, Müller J, Müller JC, Pena R, Polle A, Renner SC, Ruess L, Schönig I, Schrumpf M, Solly EF, Tschapka M, Weisser WW, Wubet T, Fischer M (2019) Specialisation and diversity of multiple trophic groups are promoted by different forest features. Ecology Letters 22: 170–180

    Felipe-Lucia MR, Soliveres S, Penone C, Manning P, van der Plas F, Boch S, Prati D, Ammer C, Schall P, Gossner MM, Bauhus J, Buscot F, Blaser S, Blüthgen N, de Frutos A, Ehbrecht M, Frank K, Goldmann K, Hänsel F, Jung K, Kahl T, Nauss T, Oelmann Y, Pena R, Polle A, Renner S, Schloter M, Schöning I, Schrumpf M, Schulze E-D, Solly E, Sorkau E, Stempfhuber B, Tschapka M, Weisser W, Wubet T, Fischer M, Allan E (2018) Multiple forest attributes underpin the provision of multiple ecosystem services. Nature communications 9: 4839. DOI: 10.1038/s41467-018-07082-4

    Greve ME, Hager, J, Weisser WW, Schall P, Gossner MM, Feldhaar H (2018) Effect of forest management on temperate ant communities. Ecosphere, 9(6), e02303. doi: 10.1002/ecs2.2303

    Schall P, Gossner MM, Heinrichs S, Fischer M, Boch S, Prati D, Jung K, Baumgartner V, Blaser S, Böhm S, Buscot F, Daniel R, Goldmann K, Kaiser K, Kahl T, Lange M, Müller J, Overmann J, Renner SC, Schulze E-D, Sikorski J, Tschapka M, Türke M, Weisser WW, Wemheuer B, Wubet T, Ammer C (2018) The impact of even-aged and uneven-aged forest management on regional biodiversity of multiple taxa in European beech forests. Journal of Applied Ecology 55: 267-278

    Schall P, Schulze E-D, Fischer M, Ayasse M, Ammer C (2018) Relations between forest management, stand structure and productivity across different types of Central European forests. Basic and Applied Ecology 32: 39-52. DOI: 10.1016/j.baae.2018.02.007

    Ammer C, Schall P, Gossner M M, Heinrichs S, Boch S, Prati D, Jung K, Baumgartner V, Blaser S, Böhm S, Buscot F, Daniel R, Goldmann K, Kaiser K, Kahl T, Lange M, Müller J, Overmann J, Renner S C, Schulze E-D, Sikorski J, Tschapka M, Türke M, Weisser W W, Wemheuer B, Wubet T, Fischer M (2017) Waldbewirtschaftung und Biodiversität: Vielfalt ist gefragt. Allgemeine Forstzeitschrift/Der Wald 72 (17): 20-25

    Ehbrecht M, Schall P, Ammer C, Seidel D (2017) Quantifying stand structural complexity and its relationship with forest management, tree species diversity and microclimate. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 242: 1-9

    Liang J, Crowther TC, Picard N, Wiser S, Zhou M, Alberti G, Schulze E-D, McGuire AD, Bozzato F, Pretzsch H, de-Miguel S, Paquette A, Hérault B, Scherer-Lorenzen M, Barrett CB, Glick HB, Hengeveld GM, Nabuurs G-J, Pfautsch S, Viana H, Vibrans AC, Ammer C, Schall P, Verbyla D, Tchebakova N, Fischer M, Watson JV, Chen HYH, Lei X, Schelhaas M-J, Lu H, Gianelle D, Parfenova EI, Salas C, Lee E, Lee B, Kim HS, Bruelheide H, Coomes DA, Piotto D, Sunderland T, Schmid B, Gourlet-Fleury S, Sonké B, Tavani R, Zhu J, Brandl S, Vayreda J, Kitahara F, Searle EB, Neldner VJ, Ngugi MR, Baraloto C, Frizzera L, Balazy R, Oleksyn J, Zawila-Niedzwiecki T, Bouriaud O, Bussotti F, Finér L, Jaroszewicz B, Jucker T, Valladares F, Jagodzinski AM, Peri PL, Gonmadje C, Marthy W, O'Brien T, Martin EH, Marshall AR, Rovero F, Bitariho R, Niklaus PA, Alvarez-Loayza P, Chamuya N, Valencia R, Mortier F, Wortel V, Engone-Obiang NL, Ferreira LV, Odeke DE, Vasquez RM, Lewis SL, Reich PB (2016) Positive biodiversity - productivity relationship predominant in global forests. Science 354: 6309. DOI: 10.1126/science.aaf8957

    Ehbrecht M, Schall P, Juchheim J, Ammer C, Seidel D (2016) Effective number of layers: a new measure for quantifying vertical stand structure based on terrestrial LiDAR. Forest Ecology and Management 380: 212-223

    Allan E, Bossdorf O, Dormann CF, Prati D, Gossner MM, Tscharntke T, Blüthgen N, Bellach M, Birkhofer K, Boch S, Böhm S, Börschig C, Chatzinotas A, Christ S, Daniel R, Diekötter T, Fischer C, Friedl T, Glaser K, Hallmann C, Hodac L, Hölzel N, Jung K, Klein AM, Klaus VH, Kleinebecker T, Krauss J, Lange M, Morris EK, Müller J, Nacke H, Pasalic E, Rillig MC, Rothenwöhrer C, Schall P, Scherber C, Schulze W, Socher SA, Steckel J, Steffan-Dewenter I, Türke M, Weiner CN, Werner M, Westphal C, Wolters V, Wubet T, Gockel S, Gorke M, Hemp A, Renner SC, Schöning I, Pfeiffer S, König-Ries B, Buscot F, Linsenmair KE, Schulze E-D, Weisser WW, Fischer M (2014) Interannual variation in land-use intensity enhances grassland multidiversity. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 111 (1): 308-313. doi:10.1073/pnas.1312213111

    Schall P, Ammer C (2013) How to quantify forest management intensity in Central European Forests. European Journal of Forest Research 132: 379-396. DOI: 10.1007/s10342-013-0681-6




    Objective (Subject)IMPAC3 - Novel genotypes for mixed cropping allow for IMProved sustainable land use ACross arable land, grassland and woodland
    ContentMixed cropping systems have the potential to enhance production by improving resource use. A field experiment was established where 8 different Populus-hybrids (focal plant species A) and 3 different Robinia clones (mixture plant species B) were established as monocultures and in varying mixtures. The main target of this subproject is to assess the impact of intra- and interspecific competition on biomass production and resource use. Repeated measurements of root collar diameter, tree height, crown structure and leaf-area-index will be carried out, and trees will be harvested for biomass estimation and the development of allometric functions.
    Appropriation period01.02.2015 - 30.09.2020
    funded byFederal Ministry of Education and Research
    partnersDepartment of Forest Botany and Tree Physiology and Department of Forest Genetics and Forest Tree Breeding at the University of Göttingen
    Persons in chargeJessica Rebola Lichtenberg
    publicationsKuchma O, Rebola-Lichtenberg J, Janz D, Krutovsky KV, Ammer C, Polle A, Gailing O (2022) Response of poplar leaf transcriptome to changed management and environmental conditions in pure and mixed with black locust stands. Forests 13: 147 DOI:doi.org/10.3390/f13020147 Rebola-Lichtenberg J, Schall P, Ammer C (2021) Biomass production in mixed short rotation coppice with poplar-hybrids (Populus spp.) and black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L.). GCB Bioenergy 13: 1924-1938 Rebola-Lichtenberg J, Streit J, Schall P, Ammer C, Seidel D (2021) From facilitation to competition: the effect of black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia L.) on the growth performance of four poplar hybrids (Populus spp.) in mixed short rotation coppice. New Forests 52: 639-656, , DOI:10.1007/s11056-020-09813-2

    Rebola-Lichtenberg J, Schall P, Annighöfer P, Ammer C, Leinemann L, Polle A, Euring D (2019) Mortality of different Populus genotypes in recently established mixed short rotation coppice with Robinia pseudoacacia L. Forests 10: 410. DOI:10.3390/f10050410

    Euring D, Rebola-Lichtenberg J, Ropertz J, Leinemann L, Ammer C, Polle A (2017) Auswirkungen von Mischungen auf Ertrag von KUP. Holz-Zentralblatt 143 (3): 88


    finalised projects

    Objective (Subject)Evaluation of the forest potential of exotic tree species under climate change in North Rhine-Westfalia, Germany
    ContentThe combination of inventory data and dendrochronological measurements will be used to develop growth models of exotic tree species growing in the arboretum Burgholz and elsewhere in NRW. Apart from yield potentials and economic benefits silvicultural options for these species shall be assessed. Tending methods for exotic tree species are not only needed for the arboretum itself but also countrywide.
    Appropriation period15.07.2013 - 31.05.2016
    funded byLandesbetrieb Wald und Holz NRW, Ministerium für Klimaschutz, Umwelt, Landwirtschaft, Natur- und Verbraucherschutz
    partnersDr. Bertram Leder, State Enterprise for Forestry and Timber North Rhine-Westphalia, Centre of Silviculture and Forest Propagation Consulting, Training and Test Forestry Office Arnsberg, Obereimer 2a, 59821 Arnsberg
    person in chargeDr. Nils Hoffmann and Dr. Torsten Vor
    publicationsHoffmann N, Heinrichs S, Schall P, Vor T (2020) Climatic factors controlling stem growth of alien tree species at a mesic forest site: a multispecies approach. European Journal of Forest Research 139: 915-934, DOI:10.1007/s10342-020-01295-3

    Hoffmann N, Seidel D, Ammer C, Leder B, (2018) Quantifizierung der Zuwachsreaktion fremdländischer Baumarten auf Konkurrenz und Freistellungsmaßnahmen. Allgemeine Forst- und Jagdzeitung 189: 57-87

    Hoffmann N, Schall P, Ammer C, Leder B, Vor T (2018) Drought sensitivity and stem growth variation of nine alien and native tree species on a productive forest site in Germany. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 256–257: 431–444. DOI: 10.1016/j.agrformet.2018.03.008

    Hoffmann N, Leder B, Vor T (2015) Zuwachsanalyse ostasiatischer Baumarten auf einem nordrheinwestfälischen Standort unter Klimaaspekten. Forstarchiv 86: 123-138, DOI:10.4432/0300-4112-86-123


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  • Objective (Subject)Tree species diversity in Chilean Forests - are naturalness and economics compatible?
    ContentThe overall objective of the project ist to develop economically sound silvicultural alternatives to plantations with exotic tree species. Therefore different mixtures containing native tree species but also pure stands of exotic tree species will be compared. The effect of the different stand types on plant diversity, growth and economic rationality is of special interest.
    Appropriation period01.01.2012 - 31.12.2014
    funded byBauer-Stiftung zur Förderung von Wissenschaft und Forschung
    partnersInstitute of Forest Management, TU München and Facultad de Ciencias Forestales, Universidad de Concepción
    person in chargeDr. Steffi Heinrichs und Dr. Carolin Stiehl
    publicationsHeinrichs S, Pauchard A, Schall P (2018) Native Plant Diversity and Composition Across a Pinus radiata D. Don Plantation Landscape in South-Central Chile - The Impact of Plantation Age, Logging Roads and Alien Species. Forests 9(9), 567

    Uhde B, Heinrichs S, Stiehl C R, Ammer C, Müller-Using B, Knoke T (2017) Bringing ecosystem services into forest planning - Can we optimize the composition of Chilean forests based on expert knowledge. Forest Ecology and Management 404: 126-140

    Heinrichs S, Stiehl C, Müller-Using B (2016) Can native plant species be preserved in an anthropogenic forest landscape dominated by aliens? A case study from Mediterranean Chile. Annals of Forest Research: Online First, DOI: 10.15287/afr.2016.498 pdf

    Heinrichs S, Pauchard A (2015) Struggling to maintain native plant diversity in a peri-urban reserve surrounded by a highly anthropogenic matrix. Biodiversity and Conservation 24: 2769-2788. DOI: 10.1007/s10531-015-0964-y

    further publications are in preparation


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  • Objective (Subject)Can thinnings improve the drought tolerance of Norway spruce?
    ContentThe effect of different thinning regimes on transpiration and growth of target trees are studied on an experimental site in Southern Bavaria near Landshut. The experiment includes sapflow measurements and a survey of soil hydrology as well as measurements on above and belowground biomass.
    Appropriation period01.01.2008 - 31.12.2014 und 01.12.14 bis 30.06.18
    funded byBavarian state department for food, agriculture and forestry (phase 1) und Federal Ministry of Food and Agriculture (phase 2)
    partnersChair of plant ecopysiology , TU München and Bavarian Forest Institute (LWF)
    person in chargeDr. Timo Gebhardt
    publicationsGebhardt T, Häberle K-H, Matyssek R, Schulz C, Ammer C (2017) Weniger Trockenstress bei Fichte: regelmäßig kräftig durchforsten. Allgemeine Forstzeitschrift/Der Wald 72 (17): 10-12

    Gebhardt T, Häberle K-H, Matyssek R, Schulz C, Ammer C (2014) The more, the better? Water relations of Norway spruce stands after progressive thinning intensities. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 197: 235-243

    Sohn J, Gebhardt T, Ammer C, Bauhus J, Häberle K-H, Matyssek M, Grams T E E (2013) Mitigation of drought by thinning: short-term and long-term effects on growth and physiological performance of Norway spruce (Picea abies). Forest Ecology and Management 308: 188-197

    Gebhardt T, Grams T, Häberle K-H, Matyssek R, Schulz C, Grimmeisen W, Ammer C (2012) Helfen Durchforstungen bei Trockenheit? Erste Ergebnisse eines Versuchs zur Verbesserung der Wasserversorgung junger Fichtenbestände. LWF aktuell 87: 8-10

    Gebhardt T, Schulz C, Matyssek R, Ammer C (2010) Die Fichte im Zeichen des Klimawandels - Beugen Durchforstungseingriffe Trockenschäden vor? Forstarchiv 81: 86-87




    Objective (Subject)Impact of von intra- und interspezific competition on timber quality
    ContentThe conversion from pure to mixed forest stands is one objective of forest politics of the German federal and state governments. As part of this conversion the percentage of deciduous trees has already increased by 7% between 2002 and 2012 (BMEL 2014). By now pure and mixed stands have been compared in many aspects. However, not much is known on the effect of fine-grain mixtures on timber quality of hardwoods. Wood quality features, especially branchiness and diameter, can be influenced by silvicultural treatments i.e. competition control. In this project the influence of intra- and interspecific competition on wood quality of European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) will be investigated. For this purpose quality grading is conducted at the standing tree ? via terrestrial laserscanning -, at the lying stem and at the final product.
    Appropriation period15.11.2014 - 15.10.2017
    funded byMinistry for Science and Culture of Lower Saxony
    partnersworking groups of the study programme materials research on wood
    Persons in chargeKirsten Höwler
    publicationsHöwler K, Vor T, Schall P, Annighöfer P, Seidel D, Ammer C (2021) Distribution of the timber quality attribute ‘knot surface’ in logs of Fagus sylvatica L. from pure and mixed forest stands. European Journal of Forest Research 140: 969-981

    Höwler K, Vor T, Seidel D, Annighöfer P, Ammer C (2019) Analyzing effects of intra- and interspecific competition on timber quality attributes of Fagus sylvatica L. - from quality assessments on standing trees to sawn boards. European Journal of Forest Research 327-343. DOI:10.1007/s10342-019-01173-7

    Höwler, K, Annighöfer P, Ammer C, Seidel D (2017) Competition improves quality-related external stem characteristics of Fagus sylvatica L. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 47: 1603-1613


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  • Objective (Subject)SHAPE- The impact of forest management intensity and neighborhood diversity on tree crown attributes
    ContentThe structure and shape of a tree crowns is related to tree growth and is of special importance for species of various taxa. It is well known that crown dimensions can be controlled by forest management. However, information on how silvicultural interventions and competition by neighboring trees modify the shape of tree crowns and branch ramification structure is scarce. This project uses terrestrial laser scanning to provide such information based on three-dimensional models of trees that grew up in stands that are characterized by different management intensities and species diversity. Furthermore, the unique spatial information will be used to measure and compare three-dimensional space filling in forest stands of varying management intensities and species diversity.
    Appropriation period01.04.2014-31.03.2017
    funded byGerman Science Foundation
    partnersBiodiversity Exploratories (DFG Priority Programm 1374)
    person in chargeJulia Juchheim and Dr. Dominik Seidel
    publicationsJuchhheim J, Ehbrecht M, Schall P, Ammer C, Seidel D (2020) Effect of tree species mixing on stand structural complexity. Forestry 93: 75-83, DOI:10.1093/forestry/cpz046

    Seidel D, Ehbrecht M, Juchheim J, Schall P, Ammer C (2017) Terrestrisches Laserscanning erfasst komplexe Waldstrukturen. Allgemeine Forstzeitschrift/Der Wald 72 (17): 25-28

    Juchheim J, Annighöfer P, Ammer C, Calders K, Raumonen P, Seidel D (2017): How management intensity and neighborhood composition affect the morphology of beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) trees. Trees – Structure and Function 31: 1723-1735. DOI 10.1007/s00468-017-1581-z

    Juchheim J, Ammer C, Schall P, Seidel D (2017) Canopy space filling rather than conventional measures of structural diversity explains productivity of beech stands. Forest Ecology and Management 395: 19-26


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  • Objective (Subject)Testing the effectiveness of blue, acoustic and multi-colored wildlife warning reflectors to mitigate wildlife-vehicle collisions on roads
    ContentWildlife-vehicle collisions (WVC) cause a serious threat to both humans and wildlife and an economic loss of more than half a billion - in 2013 only in Germany. To mitigate WVS's, a variety of measures have been developed and implemented. One such measure is wildlife warning reflectors. Their efficacy has been tested in a variety of studies focusing on a potential change in fatalities or on the behavioral response of wildlife towards these reflectors. Despite the different conclusions of these studies, they have been testing white and red wildlife warning reflectors, although other studies have revealed that deer and many other mammals are dichromatic and not sensitive to light longer than 550 nm, while red has a wavelength of 630-790 nm. Our project evaluates the effectiveness of blue, acoustic and multi-colored wildlife warning reflectors in a BACI approach focusing on both, the change in fatalities as well as the behavioral responses of wildlife towards these reflectors, with an additional inclusion of spatial and temporal parameters.
    Appropriation period15.05.2014 - 14.05.2018
    funded byThe German Insurers (GDV)
    partnersProf. Dr. Torsten Hothorn, University of Zurich
    Persons in chargeDr. Anke Benten und Dr. Torsten Vor
    publicationsBenten A, Annighöfer P, Vor T (2018) Wildlife Warning Reflectors Potential to Mitigate Wildlife-Vehicle Collisions - A Review on the Evaluation Methods. Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution 6:37. doi: 10.3389/fevo.2018.00037

    Benten A, Hothorn T, Vor T, Ammer C (2018) Wildlife warning reflectors do not mitigate wildlife-vehicle collisions on roads. Accident Analysis & Prevention 120: 68-73

    Seidel D, Hähn N, Annighöfer P, Benten A, Vor T, Ammer C (2018) Assessment of roe deer (Capreolus capreolus L.) - vehicle accident hotspots with respect to the location of "trees outside forest" along roadsides. Applied Geography 93 (2018): 76-80. doi: 10.1016/j.apgeog.2018.02.015


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  • Objective (Subject)Lin2Value- Options for an improved forest stand management in Southeastern China
    ContentChina is obliged to fulfill its commitments in the international Climate Policy Arena in line with national regulations to reduce the CO2-intensity of its national economy by approx. 40% from 2005 to 2020. One approach to achieve this is the increase of wood and carbon stocks in forests aiming at the reduction of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in land-use. Sustainable Forest Management (SFM), not only increases carbon stocks, but also contributes to increased stand stability, higher timber value and enhanced biodiversity. SFM will also lower the risk that wind, pest and snow damage will contribute to release of stored carbon from forests (non-permanence). However, regulatory policies to enable large-scale implementation of SFM require some certainty over decision making processes given the long-term impacts of decisions in forest management. Hence, an integrated simulation framework is needed to better understand forest growth dynamics and its impact on carbon accumulation, forest carbon footprints (harvested wood products, HWP) and trade-offs and synergies between different management goals. In addition, interactions between different forest management regimes and risks (extreme meteorological events and human induced risks) need to be assessed which are likely to change with stand age, stand structure, species compositions as well as site conditions. The project is lead-managed by the Chair of Forest Inventory and Remote sensing of Göttingen University. Our work package will evaluate how changes of the present forest management systems, for example by converting pure conifer stands into mixed stands, modern thinning regimes or longer rotation periods would change the carbon stock of such forests.
    Appropriation period01.05.2012 - 28.02.2015
    funded byFederal Ministry of Education and Research
    partnersChair of Forest Inventory and remote Sensing, Göttingen University and Chair of Silviculture Freiburg University
    person in chargeDr. Torsten Vor
    publicationsVor T, Heinrichs S, Ammer C, Lin N, He Y (2020) Plant species diversity and composition in the understory of Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata) plantations and mixed broadleaved forests in Southeast China. In: Felbermeier B, Stimm B, Seidl R (eds) Waldbau weltweit 2.0. Festschrift anlässlich der Verabschiedung von Prof. Dr. Dr. Reinhard Mosandl. Forstliche Forschungsberichte München Nr. 219, pp. 198-215

    Tang X, Fehrmann L, Guan F, Forrester DI, Guisasola R, Pérez-Cruzado C, Vor T, Lu Y, Álvarez-González JG, Kleinn C (2017) A generalized algebraic difference approach allows an improved estimation of aboveground biomass dynamics of Cunninghamia lanceolata and Castanopsis sclerophylla forests. Annals of Forest Science 74: 12. doi:10.1007/s13595-016-0603-0

    Tang X, Perez-Cruzado C, Vor T, Fehrmann L, Alvarez-Gonzalez JG, Kleinn C (2015) Development of stand density management diagrams for Chinese fir plantations. Forestry 89: 36-45, DOI: 10.1093/forestry/cpv024


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  • Objective (Subject)Forest dynamics after bark beetle outbreak in the national park Berchtesgaden
    ContentForest management has been aiming to eliminate natural disturbance dynamics in forest ecosystems over the last centuries. At the same time the changes of structural and microclimatic conditions for example by storms or bark beetle infestations, have been detected as valuable hotspots of forest biodiversity. In the Berchtesgaden National Park winter storms led to subsequent bark beetle calamities on approximately 6,000 ha of forest land in the core zone of the park in 1990 and 2007. No interference by management took place. To assess the impact of the large-scale disturbances on the unmanaged forest ecosystems we investigate how the site conditions are altered by the disturbances, how vegetation and deed wood develops and how these processes influence the diversity and abundance of selected groups of species. The study plots are located in three different types of forests, namely, undisturbed but potentially susceptible spruce stands (reference), stands affected by bark beetles during the last 5 years (new disturbance) and stands being infested in the 1990th (old disturbance). Stand structure, regeneration, vascular plants and arthropods diversity are surveyed.
    Appropriation period01.01.2012 - 31.12.2014
    funded byBavarian State Ministry of the Environment and Consumer Protection
    partnersBerchtesgaden National Park und Bavarian Forest National Park
    person in chargeDr. Maria-Barbara Winter
    publicationsWinter M-B, Bässler C, Bernhardt-Römermann M, Krah F-S, Schaefer H, Seibold S, Müller J (2017) On the structural and species diversity effects of bark beetle disturbance in forests during initial and advanced early-seral stages at different scales. European Journal of Forest Research 136: 357-373. DOI:10.1007/s10342-017-1037-4

    Winter M-B, Baier R, Ammer C (2015) Regeneration dynamics and resilience of unmanaged mountain forests in the Northern Limestone Alps following bark beetle induced spruce dieback. European Journal of Forest Research 134: 949-968

    Winter M-B, Ammer C, Baier R, Donato D C, Seibold S, Müller J (2015) Multi-taxon alpha diversity following bark beetle disturbance: evaluating multi-decade persistence of a diverse early-seral phase. Forest Ecology and Management 338: 32-45. DOI:10.1016/j.foreco.2014.11.019


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  • Objective (Subject)Response of forest stands at the edge of the southern taiga to climate factors, natural and silvicultural disturbances
    ContentTogether with Mongolian partners, experimental plots in forest stands were established. Some of these stands were thinned. In the Selenge Aimag, north of the Mongolian capital Ulaanbaatar, this initiative was initially started within the framework of a UNFAO-project with the Darchan-based branch of the Mongolian University of Life Sciences and then continued with DAAD-funding. The research focuses on the analyzis of climate growth relationships as well as forest structure and thinning analyzes in birch and larch forests and shall lead to future management activities, which may be more sustainable than in the past.
    Appropriation period09.2011-10.2011, 09.2012-09.2013, 01.2015-06.2015
    funded byGerman academic exchange service (DAAD) and IAMONET-RU (Erasmus Mundus)
    partnersMongolian University of Life Sciences in Darkhan, Mongolian Academy of Sciences, Technische Universität Dresden, Buryat State Academy of Agriculture, Saint-Petersburg State Forest Technical University
    person in chargeDr. Alexander Gradel
    publicationsGradel A, Ammer C, Ganbaatar B, Nadaldorj O, Dovdondemberel B, Wagner S (2017) On the effect of thinning on tree growth and stand structure of white birch (Betula platyphylla Sukaczev) and Sibirian larch (Larix sibirica Ledeb.) in Mongolia. Forests 8: 105

    Gradel A, Haensch C, Batsaikhan G, Batdorj D, Ochirragchaa N, Günther B (2017) Response of white birch (Betula platyphylla Sukaczev) to temperature and precipitation in the mountain forest steppe and taiga of northern Mongolia. Dendrochronologia 41: 24-33. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.dendro.2016.03.005

    Gradel A, Batsaikhan G, Batdorj D, Ochirragchaa N, Kusbach A (2017) Climate growth relationships and pointer year analysis of a Siberian larch (Larix sibirica Ledeb.) chronology from the Mongolian mountain forest-steppe. Forest Ecosystems 4:22 DOI: https://doi.org/10.1186/s40663-017-0110-2

    Altaev AA, Gradel A, Antropov VF, Herbst P (2016) Burjatiens Wälder - Schutz für den Baikalsee. Forstzeitung: 10/16: 38-39

    Gradel A, Petrov W N, Bayartaa N, Herbst P (2016) Mongolei: In kleinen Schritten Richtung Marktwirtschaft. Forstzeitung 06/16: 30-31

    Gradel A, Ochirragchaa N, Altaev AA, Voinkov AA, Enkhtuya B (2015) Spatial distribution of trees on light taiga plots before selective thinning. Mongolian Journal of Agricultural Sciences 15: 91-99

    Gradel A, Petrov W (2014) Forstpolitische Entwicklungen im Transformationsland Mongolei. AFZ-Der Wald 17: 36-39.

    Gradel A, Mühlenberg M (2011) Spatial characteristics of near-natural Mongolian forests at the edge of the southern taiga. Allgemeine Forst- und Jagdzeitung (German Journal of Forest Research) 182 3/4: 40-52.


    Objective (Subject)Options and restrictions of regenerating oak naturally - recommendations for pratical forestry and nature conservation management
    ContentThis project aims at quantifying the shade tolerance of oak which may vary by site conditions. Also other abiotic and biotic factors which may influence successful oak regeneration will be analysed. The results of the study should support operative decisions. Furthermore it should suggest ways to keep a considerable amount of oak where this species contributes to a high nature conservation value.
    Appropriation period01.03.2011 - 28.02.2014
    funded byBavarian state department for food, agriculture and forestry
    partnersBavarian State forest Company, Bureau of food, agriculture and forestry Uffenheim
    person in chargeDr. Peter Annighöfer and Dr. Torsten Vor
    publicationsAnnighöfer P, Beckschäfer P, Vor T, Ammer C (2015) Regeneration patterns of European oak species (Quercus petraea (Matt.) Liebl., Quercus robur L.) in dependence of environment and neighborhood. PLoS ONE 10(8): e0134935





    Objective (Subject)The effect of forest management and neighborhood diversity on seasonal tree growth responses
    ContentThe purpose of this research is therefore (1) to explain the growth response of selected trees on different time scales (day to year) as a function of their neighborhood (which is strongly related to management intensity); (2) to reveal the impact of neighborhood density and species composition on individual tree growth (measured by self-acting dendrometers) and (3) to explain the revealed growth pattern by using growth related plant traits, especially stabile isotope ratios, nitrogen concentrations and SLA and morphological characteristics such as branch remification. The idea of this proposal therefore is not only to detect different patterns of growth-neighborhood-responses by analyzing tree growth measurements originating from daily to yearly growth data, but also to relate these different growth patterns to different ecophysiological characteristics and strategies.
    Appropriation period01.03.2011 - 28.02.2014
    funded byDeutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (German Science Foundation)
    partnersMax-Planck- Institute for Biogeochemistry Jena
    person in chargeDr. Jérôme Metz
    publicationsMetz J, Annighöfer P, Westekemper K, Schall P, Schulze ED, Ammer C (2020) Less is more: Effects of competition reduction and facilitation on intra annual (basal area) growth of mature European beech. Trees 34: 17-36, DOI:10.1007/s00468-019-01894-7

    Annighöfer P, Metz J, Schall P, Schulze E-D, Ammer C (2017) Buche in Mischbeständen bei Trockenheit weniger gestresst. Allgemeine Forstzeitschrift/Der Wald 72 (17): 13-15

    Metz J, Annighöfer P, Schall P, Zimmermann J, Kahl T, Schulze E-D, Ammer C (2016): Site adapted admixed tree species reduce drought susceptibility of mature European beech. Global Change Biology 22: 903-920. DOI: 10.1111/gcb.13113

    Metz J, Seidel D, Schall P, Scheffer D, Schulze ED, Ammer C (2013) Crown modeling by terrestrial laser scanning as an approach to assess the effect of aboveground intra- and interspecific competition on tree growth. Forest Ecology and Management 310: 275-288. DOI: 10.1016/j.foreco.2013.08.014

    further publications are in preparation




    Objective (Subject)Use potential of coppice, coppice with standards and high forests for energy wood production
    ContentBased on several stands the use potential coppice, coppice with standards and high forests for energy wood production is investigated. The effect of the three silvicultural systems on nutrient cycling will be tested. Furthermore, economic considerations under different scenarios will be part of the evaluation.
    Appropriation period01.09.2010 - 31.03.2014
    funded byFederal Ministry of Education and Research
    partnersForest Ecosystems Research Center
    person in chargeDr. Katja Albert
    publicationsAlbert K, Annighöfer P, Schumacher J, Ammer C (2014) Biomass equations for seven different tree species growing in coppice-with-standards forests in Central Germany. Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research 29: 210-221

    Albert K, Ammer C (2012): Biomasseproduktivität ausgewählter europäischer Mittel- und Niederwaldbestände - Ergebnisse einer vergleichenden Metaanalyse. Allgemeine Forst-und Jagdzeitung 183: 225-237

    Seidel D, Albert K, Fehrmann F, Ammer C (2012) The potential of terrestrial laser scanning for the estimation of understory biomass in coppice-with-standard systems. Biomass and Bioenergy 47: 20-25

    further publications are in preparation




    Objective (Subject)Growth of European beech and Norway spruce seedlings along a light and draught gradient
    ContentEuropean beech and Norway spruce seedlings are selected along a light gradient. Some seedlings are exposed to artificially induced draught. The response of the seedlings in growth and plant traits such as SLA and δ13 C will be investigated
    Appropriation period01.07.2010 - 31.03.2014
    funded byMinistry of Science and Culture of Lower Saxony
    partnersLower Saxony State Forest
    person in chargeChristina Lödige
    publicationsLödige C, Schall P, Ammer C (2014) How do size and resource availability control aboveground biomass allocation of tree seedlings? Forest Research 3: 123. DOI:10.4172/2168-9776.1000123




    Objective (Subject)Use of terrestrial laserscanning for the estimation of wooden biomass in small timber stands
    ContentThe project aims at algorithms for the automated estimation of stem and branch biomass of selected tree and shrub species by terrestrial laserscanning.
    Appropriation period01.09.2010 - 31.12.2013
    funded byFederal Ministry of Education and Research
    partnersForest Ecosystems Research Center
    person in chargeDr. Dominik Seidel
    publications

    Seidel D, Ammer C (2014) Efficient measurements of basal area in short rotation forests based on terrestrial laser scanning under special consideration of shadowing. iForest - Biogeosciences and Forestry 7: 226-231

    Seidel D, Albert K, Ammer C, Fehrmann L, Kleinn C (2013) Using terrestrial laser scanning to support biomass estimation in densely stocked young tree plantations. International Journal of Remote Sensing, 34(24): 8699-8709. DOI: 10.1080/01431161.2013.848308

    Seidel D, Albert K, Fehrmann F, Ammer C (2012) The potential of terrestrial laser scanning for the estimation of understory biomass in coppice-with-standard systems. Biomass and Bioenergy 47: 20-25




    Objective (Subject)Ecosystem Services of Natural Forests at Forestry and Climate Policy (FKZ 3511 84 0200) - Impacts of the cessation of material and energetic use of wood in previously managed forests on the carbon balance of the forests and the wood product sector in Germany -
    ContentThe main objective of this project is to quantify the total carbon (C) balance of spatially defined forests after the cessation of material and energetic use of their wood. The model regions are located in Thuringia (Hainich, Hohe Schrecke, Biosphärenreservat Vessertal), and they are representative for most natural (mixed) beech forest sites in Germany. Basing on the resulting total C-balances we will evaluate the relevance of the cessation of wood use for climate change mitigation, and we will identify potential win-win situations and conflicts between biodiversity conservation and the ecosystem services "wood production" and "C-sequestration".
    Appropriation period15.08.2011 - 31.07.2013
    funded byFederal Agency for Nature Conservation (BfN) with funds of the Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety (BMU)
    partnersThuringianforest, Gotha
    person in chargeJan Raacke
    coordinationDr. Martina Mund
    publicationsMund M, Frischbier N, Profft I, Raacke J, Richter F, Ammer C (2015) Klimaschutzwirkung des Wald- und Holzsektors: Schutz- und Nutzungsszenarien für drei Modellregionen in Thüringen. BfN-Skripten 396: 1-168 pdf

    Mund M, Ammer C (2013) Können FFH-Waldgebiete im besonderen Maße zur Erforschung der Ökosystemleistung Kohlenstoffsequestrierung beitragen? In: Lehrke S, Ellwanger G, Buschmann A, Frederking W, Paulsch C, Schröder E, Ssymank A (eds). Natura 2000 im Wald. Lebensraumtypen, Erhaltungszustand, Management. Naturschutz und Biologische Vielfalt Vol. 131. Bundesamt für Naturschutz, Bonn-Bad Godesberg, 157-167




    Objective (Subject)The impact of tree species diversity on tree growth and herb-layer diversity – ecological studies and management implications at the biosphere reserve Valle del Ticino
    ContentThe project focuses on the understanding of the effects of tree species diversity on intertree competition and growth and the diversity of the herb-layer. The role of neophytes within the interplay of overstorey trees and ground vegetation and the seed bank in the soil is of special interest. The experimental area (biosphere reserve Valle del Ticino) is one of the rare riparian forests throughout Europe with an considerable amount of native and non-native tree species. The study focuses on the effects of small scaled stand structure and species composition on tree growth and stand dynamics. The study comprises field surveys, dendrochronological approaches using stem cores and pot experiments under controlled conditions.
    Appropriation period01.01.2010 - 31.05.2013
    funded byMarianne und Dr. Fritz Walter Fischer-Stiftung
    partnersProfessorship for Environment and Applied Botany, Free University of Bozen - Bolzano
    person in chargeDr. Heike Kawaletz and Dr. Peter Annighöfer
    coordinationDr. Inga Mölder
    publicationsAnnighöfer P, Ammer C (2015) Spätblühende Traubenkirsche: Pragmatismus statt Aktionismus. AFZ/Der Wald 4/70: 27-30

    Annighöfer P, Kawaletz H, Terwei A, Mölder I, Zerbe S, Ammer C (2015) Managing an invasive tree species - silvicultural recommendations for black cherry (Prunus serotina Ehrh.). Forstarchiv 86: 139-152, DOI:10.4432/0300-4112-86-139

    Annighöfer P, Mölder I, Zerbe S, Kawaletz H, Terwei A, Ammer C (2012) Biomass functions for the two alien tree species Prunus serotina Ehrh. and Robinia pseudoacacia L. in floodplain forests of Northern Italy. European Journal of Forest Research 131: 1619-1635, DOI: 10.1007/s10342-012-0629-2

    Annighöfer P, Schall P, Kawaletz H, Mölder I, Terwei A, Zerbe S, Ammer C (2012) Vegetative growth response of black cherry (Prunus serotina) to different mechanical control methods in a biosphere reserve. Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 42: (12), 2037 - 2051, DOI: 10.1139/cjfr-2012-0257

    Bourtsoukidis E, Kawaletz H, Radacki D, Schütz S, Hakola H, Hellén H, Noe S, Mölder I, Ammer C, Bonn B (2014) Impact of flooding and drought conditions on the emission of volatile organic compounds of Quercus robur and Prunus serotina. Trees - Structure and Function 28: 193-204. DOI: 10.1007/s00468-013-0942-5

    Kawaletz H, Mölder I, Annighöfer P, Terwei A, Zerbe S, Ammer C (2014a) Back to the roots: how do seedlings of native tree species react to the competition by exotic species? Annals of Forest Science 71: 337-347

    Kawaletz H, Mölder I, Annighöfer P, Terwei A, Zerbe S, Ammer C (2014b) Pot experiments with woody species - a review. Forestry 87: 482-491

    Kawaletz H, Mölder I, Zerbe S, Annighöfer P, Terwei A, Ammer C (2013) Exotic tree seedlings are much more competitive than natives but show underyielding when growing together. Journal of Plant Ecology 6: 305-315. DOI: 10.1093/jpe/rts044

    Skowronek S, Terwei A, Zerbe S, Mölder I, Annighöfer P, Kawaletz H, Ammer C, Heilmeier H (2013) Regeneration Potential of Floodplain Forests Under the Influence of Nonnative Tree Species: Soil Seed Bank Analysis in Northern Italy. Restoration Ecology. DOI: 10.1111/rec.12027

    Terwei A, Zerbe S, Mölder I, Annighöfer P, Kawaletz H, Ammer C (2016) Response of floodplain understorey species to environmental gradients and tree invasion ? A functional trait perspective. Biological Invasions 18: 2951-2973 Terwei A, Zerbe S, Zeileis A, Annighöfer P, Kawaletz H, Mölder I, Ammer C (2013) Which are the factors controlling tree seedling establishment in North Italian floodplain forests invaded by non-native tree species? Forest Ecology and Management 304: 192-203. DOI: 10.1016/j.foreco.2013.05.003





    Objective (Subject)Fascilitation of rare tree species
    ContentThe project suggests how rare tree species could be favored during forest management. Various factors such as ownership, site quality, autecology of the species, control of ungulate density and costs are taken into account.
    Appropriation period01.08.2009 - 31.07.2012
    funded byDeutsche Bundesstiftung Umwelt (DBU)
    partnersDepartment of Forest Zoology and Forest Conservation, Georg-August-Universität Göttingen
    person in chargeDr. Torsten Vor
    publicationsVor T, Heckmann P (2017) Chancen zur Etablierung seltener Baumarten. Allgemeine Forstzeitschrift/Der Wald 72 (17): 16-19

    Ammer C, Vor T (2013) Verlust von Mischbaumarten durch Wildverbiss in Buchenwäldern. Allgemeine Forstzeitschrift/Der Wald 68 (1): 9-11




    Objective (Subject)Interactions between light and soil moisture on growth and biomass partitioning of European beech and Norway spruce seedlings
    ContentIn a greenhouse experiment seedlings of European beech and Norway spruce were exposed to different light (3 levels) and soil moisture (2 levels) over three years. Measurements were carried out to detect growth responses and biomass partitioning in relation to resource availability.
    Appropriation periodFinished (01.01.2006 - 31.12.2008)
    funded byBavarian state department for food, agriculture and forestry and Research Institute of Forest Ecology and Forestry (Rhineland-Palatinate)
    partnersUniversity of applied sciences Weihenstephan-Triesdorf, Institute of horticulture
    person in chargeProf. Dr. Christian Ammer
    publicationsSchall P, Lödige C, Beck M, Ammer C (2012) Biomass allocation to roots and shoots is more sensitive to shade and drought in European beech than in Norway spruce seedlings. Forest Ecology and Management 266: 246-253