B10 - Landscape-level assessment of ecological and socioeconomic functions of rainforest transformation systems in Sumatra (Indonesia)

In Sumatra, Indonesia, previous lowland rainforest landscapes have been transformed into a heterogeneous mosaic landscape with patches of, for instance, rainforest and rubber and palm-oil plantation. The relationships between the spatial configuration of the landscape and different aspects of biodiversity, ecosystem functioning, and economic benefit are expected to be interdependent and often nonlinear. Our project aims to understand and possibly find ways how to maintain biodiversity and ecosystem functioning while serving human needs. In Phase 1, we successfully developed a first version of a MAS/LUCC model (multi-agent system model of land-use and land-cover change) focusing on smallholder land-use decisions. We propose to further develop this integrated model by adding further components of ecological diversity, ecological functions, and socioeconomic functions. In line with the research program of the CRC, we will introduce environmental and socioeconomic heterogeneity. Model development and analysis will be in collaboration with numerous projects within the CRC. The model will be used to 1) search for efficient combinations of ecological and economic functions in face of trade-offs and synergies, and 2) scale up from local to landscape and broader scales. Our guiding question is what kind of landscape mosaic optimizes the ensemble of biodiversity, ecosystem functioning, and economic benefit. The project plays a central role in integrating the research outcomes of the CRC.